Ecological problems

Ecological problems

State of groundwater

Underground waters of the aquiferous Middle Carboniferous-Permian carbonate horizon are intensively exploited on the territory of the republic as centralized water intakes of the Saranskoye field, as well as group water intakes of settlements and single wells in rural areas since the mid-20th century. Long-term water abstraction caused a decrease in the level of groundwater not only of the exploited aquifer, but also of adjacent aquifers and complexes.

The regime of the groundwater level of the aquiferous Middle Carboniferous-Permian carbonate horizon in the multi-year section is determined by the intensity of its operation by centralized water intakes and single wells. Long and concentrated water abstraction, exceeding the approved operational reserves of groundwater (Saransk city water intake), led to a significant decrease in the level, to the formation of an extensive depression funnel and provoked the depletion and pollution of fresh groundwater at water intakes. The process of intensive use of groundwater continued until the early 1990s. Then, until the year 2000, there was a gradual reduction in water abstraction. The dynamics of the level of groundwater in this period was characterized by a constant reduction in the rate of its annual decline. Since 2001, the total water abstraction for centralized water intakes has not exceeded the approved operational groundwater resources. Approximately since this time, there has been a stabilization of the decrease in the groundwater level of the exploited and adjacent aquifers. This is reflected in the reduction of its annual decline, and for individual observation wells, where the operational load has been significantly reduced or completely eliminated, there is an increase in the level.

As a result of observations for 2010, there is an increase in the level of groundwater at the following intakes: at the Saransk city water intake in the central part there is a rise in the level of groundwater by 1.10-1.85 m, in the northern part - by 4.54-5, 31 m, within the southern and south-western parts - by 0,62-0,83 m; at the water intake of SRK - by 1.18-6.84 m, at Ruzaevsky urban water intake - by 0.08-1.63 m. At Pishlinsky water intake in 2010 there was a decrease in the level by 0.46 m; on Rudninsky - on 1,45-2,38 m; on the Kovylkino city - by 3.69 m.

Prior to the start of operation of the Saransk deposit, the piezometric level of groundwater in the exploited aquiferous Middle Carboniferous-Permian carbonate horizon was set at an absolute elevation of 130 m within the Volga-Sura artesian basin, 127 m at Kovylkino water intake, which were taken as the reference point.

The depression funnel centered in Saransk in 2010 was elongated and covered all centralized water intakes for water supply in Saransk and Ruzaevka. It is delineated by a piezo-iso-gypsum of 70 m, and its deepest part is piezo-iso-gypsum 60 m and is located in the northern part of the Saransk city water intake.

At the centralized water intakes of the Saranskoye field, the decline in the level since the beginning of operation in 2010 was: in the depression center at the Saransk city water intake together with the water intake of the SRK - 72.77 m, at Penzyatsky - 73.75 m, at Rudninsk - 58.20 m, at Ruzaevsky city - 61.13 m, on Pishlinsky - 64.49 m.

Another depression funnel was formed due to the work of the Kovylkinsky urban water intake. There is a decrease in the level of groundwater in the central part of the funnel due to an increase in the water intake of the distillery "Kovylkinsky". The overall decline for 2010 was
42.04 m.

Ecological state of the atmosphere

Atmospheric air is one of the most important factors of the human environment, characterizing the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population. The main sources of atmospheric pollution are automobile transport, electric power industry enterprises, and construction materials production.

The total emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere from stationary sources and vehicles amount to 119,239 thousand tons, including 34,135 thousand tons (28.6%) from stationary sources, and 85,104 thousand tons (71.4%) from road transport. Major emissions: carbon monoxide
(52.8%), nitrogen oxides (18.3%), volatile organic compounds, suspended substances (the main contribution is made by cement production enterprises - 58.4%). As a whole, the country's catchment of emissions is 93.1%, solid pollutants - 99.3%. Over the past five years, emissions of pollutants from stationary sources decreased by 3.08 thousand tons (8.3%).

Preservation of soil fertility.

One of the most unfavorable factors affecting the soil quality of the republic is soil erosion. More than 50% of the soils of Mordovia are gray forest and sod-podzolic soils, they are characterized by weak erosion resistance, about half of the arable land areas are located on slopes 2 to 4 degrees.

Areas of erosionally dangerous farmland make up 1 295.2 thousand hectares, of which 307.8 thousand hectares (23.8%) were eroded. Large areas of these lands are located in Atyashevsky, Bolsheberezernikovsky, Insara, Ichalkovsky, Kovylkinsky, Romodanovsky, Chamzinsky districts.

104.2 thousand hectares (6.6%) of agricultural lands are classified as deflationally dangerous lands, of which 56.7 thousand hectares (3.6%) are deflated, including 36.7 thousand hectares of arable land ( 3.4%).

State of surface water.

In 2011, monitoring of surface water was conducted in 10 sites: on the rivers Moksha, Insar, Nuia, Issa, Javas. State Institution "Mordovian Republican Center for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring" in 2010 carried out 3, 210 chemical analyzes. Extremely high pollution of surface water was not observed. High pollution was recorded in 7 cases in the river. Insar and in 2 cases in the river. Nu nitrogen is nitrite (from 10 to 44 MPC).

Modern water abstraction and forecasted operational resources


Water use


Artesian basins and groundwater movement


Discharge of sewage