The diversity of the vegetation of Mordovia is determined by the specific features of the climate and lithogenic base - relief, sediment character, depth of occurrence and chemical composition of groundwater. They determine the complex spatial combination of coniferous, coniferous-broad-leaved and broad-leaved forests, shrub and meadow steppes, plant communities of floodplain meadows and bogs. Zone types of vegetation are broad-leaved forests and meadow steppes.

The main forest-forming species in Mordovia are common pine, spruce, oak tree, small-leafed linden, common ash, platanous maple, elm smooth, birch warty and fluffy, alder sticky, poplar black.

Coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forests are located mainly on sandy water-glacial plains and the adjacent above-floodplain terraces. On thick sands the most widespread are pine forests, often with traces of taiga character. Depending on the fertility of the site, lichen pine forests, pine forests, green pine forests, pine forests, pine forests, sphagnum pine forests, grass-marsh pine forests are isolated. On comparatively rich sandy loamy soils with loamy interlayers pine forests are complex. In addition to pine, oaks, linden, maple, ash, elm are found in these communities, forming such types of forests as lime-tree pine forests, pine forests, oak pine forests, in the undergrowth of which grow hazel, spindle, honeysuckle, mountain ash, and in the grass cover - sedge hairy, reed reed, wintergreen, ordinary acuminate, hoof, sedge hairy, bluegrass oak, etc. In the structure of the natural vegetation of mixed forests, spruce is common.

Broad-leaved forests are crowned by comparatively small massifs of the secondary plains of moraine and erosion-denudation plains with gray forest soils and podzolized chernozems. There are several types of oak trees. Fresh oak forests occupy the upper slopes. In the first tier - oak and ash, in the second - linden, maple, elm. In a rare undergrowth - spindle warty, honeysuckle forest, fragile buckthorn, dog rose, etc. In the ground cover are typical auric lychee, sweetheart fragrant, otnut ordinary, sedge hairy - the so-called oak groove. Wet oak groves are located in the beams. In the stand are oak, ash, linden. The undergrowth is rare. In the grass cover, the forest cleaver is distributed, the nettle has nettles. Upland oak forests cover the high banks of rivers. In the first tier, oak is predominant, in the second tier there is a maple, hollow, less often linden; in the underbrush - thickets of hazel, spindle warty, bird cherry; in the ground cover - to blur, a long-standing proleucist, stellate stellate, sweetheart.

In the modern structure of the forests of Mordovia, a significant proportion is occupied by aspen and birch forests, which form temporary types on the site of cut or burned deciduous and coniferous forests. According to the species composition and structure of the undergrowth and grass and shrubby tiers, they are similar to broad-leaved oak and linden forests.

Shrub and meadow steppes were widespread in the early periods of economic development. At present, these phytocenoses occur much less frequently - most of them are plowed, and inconveniences are used for hayfields and pastures. As an example of shrub steppes, one can name the region of the Levzhi River basin, where a natural monument is organized. Here on the slopes of southern exposures vegetative communities grow, consisting of almonds of low, steppe cherry, Russian rakit, thorn (plum steppe), dogrose. There are clean and mixed thickets. The species characteristic of open meadow steppes are common in the grass cover.

Meadow steppes in the form of small fragments have been preserved along the steep slopes and sides of the beams. They are characterized by a continuous or almost continuous sinking of the soil, the presence, along with xerophilous grassy grasses, a significant amount of herbage. Steppe grasses are represented by feather grasses, cinnamon, hairy, fescue, thin-nosed, blue-leaved meadow grass, etc .; motley grass - a mildew common, a litter of the present, a steppe sage; beans - clover mountain, alpine and medium, vetch thin-leaved, rank pea. The meadow cover is characteristic for meadow steppes.

The vegetation of the floodplain is represented by forest, shrubby, meadow, marsh and aquatic phytocenoses.

Forest communities are oak groves, which contain oak, common ash, maple, rosemary, linden, elm smooth, in the second tier there is bird cherry, buckthorn lime, spindle grass, hazel, in the ground cover - nettle, pine, rumpless, the canine, lily of the valley, and others. On priterrasnyh depressions and marshes are spread alder forests of glutinous alder with an undergrowth of bird cherry, viburnum, willow ash, black currant. The grass cover is a calf, meandering, nettle, tamolga vyzolistnaya, mint, iris, etc. There is a significant presence of hops.

Floodplain meadows are represented by a large number of associations of a wide ecological range - from steppe to real marshy.

The swamps of the floodplains are subdivided into herbaceous, shrubby and forest associations according to the nature of the vegetation, among the grassy marshes predominate reed, corn, reed, horsetail, manna, canary associations. Widespread are sedge marshes with dominance of sedge soddy, black, spicy, fox. Shrub bogs are thickets of willows.

In the coastal zone of rivers and lakes there are thickets of horsetail and sedges; In the shallows, reed, bulrus lacustrine, cattails, arrowhead, and chasuha are common. The water lily is pure white and the yellow egg is part of a group of plants growing from the bottom, with floating leaves. Aloe vera bones often completely occupy shallow lakes. Extensive group of completely submerged plants: pondy, elodeya Canadian, horny, horny, horny-leaved. In the composition of free-floating on the water surface - duckweed, frog watercolor.

A special group of organisms form fungi. In the forests and in the meadows, there are numerous edible and poisonous mushrooms. To edible mushrooms with a tubular hymenophore include white fungus, poderezozovik, boletus, oyster, moss, poddubovik, etc., to lamellar - rozhiki, mushrooms, freckles, russules, valui, chanterelles, honey agarics. Poisonous fungi are represented by a pale toadstool, red fly agaric, amanita, Amanita mushroom, Satanic fungus, bile fungus, false opener, etc.

Change in forest area