Urban district of Saransk

Urban district of Saransk

Saransk is the capital of the Republic of Mordovia, a political, economic, scientific and cultural center. The territory is 71.5 square kilometers. The population of the city is 297.4 thousand people. (2010), urban Saransk - 324.9 thousand people. (2010).

              Saransk is located in the forest-steppe landscapes of the central part of the basin of Insara. The geological environment in the city is composed of coal (limestones and dolomites with interbeds of anhydrite, clay, mudstone and marl), Jurassic (clays, clayey sands with interlayers and lenses of sandstones, siltstones), chalky (sandy clays, siltstones, silts, sands, sandstones, and quaternary deposits.

             The main residential and production zones are in the altitude range of 125-200 m. In the arborespaces, the absolute heights reach 250 m. On the local sites along the root edges of river valleys and steep slopes, landslides and flooding are manifested.

The climate is moderately continental. The average temperature of the coldest month (January) is -12.3 ° C, its decrease is noted to -44 ° C. The average temperature of the warmest month (July) is +19.2 ° С, extreme values ​​reach +39 ° С. The average annual precipitation is about 500 mm. Deviation in the direction of minimum and maximum values ​​up to 180 mm.

The area of ​​the catchment of the Insar River in Saransk is 1 610 km2; the average long-term annual flow of 7.89 m3 / s, the volume of 249 million m3 per year. In the city's territory, the Tavla and Saranka rivers flow into Insar.

The main exploitable aquifer is located in cavernous-fractured limestones and dolomites of Middle and Upper Carboniferous age. The city's water supply system is based on the Saransk city section, as well as the water withdrawals of the SRK, Penzyatsky and Rudninsky.

The common pattern of landscape differentiation of Saransk city is the slope change of geocomplexes. Dark-gray forest soils prevail on the glabrous privodorazdel'nyh spaces, composed of eluvial-deluvial deposits of terrigenous rocks. Podzolized, leached and meadow chernozems are widespread on the lower slopes of the slopes and in the Insara valley under meadow steppes on the deluvium of terrigenous rocks. Secondary deciduous forests predominate in the suburbs of Saransk, mainly oak forests and aspen trees.

The ecological framework of the city is supported by the structure of green spaces. The main water-green corridors are stretched along floodplains of the rivers Insar, Sarank and Tavla, connecting suburban forest-park zones. They are important elements of the landscape and recreational complex.

There are different points of view on the origin of the name of Saransk: the name-hydronym - of ancient marbles. cap - "branch, fork, fork; inflow "; the name-characteristic given on the terrain - the sarah in the Finno-Ugric languages ​​- is a "marshy, unplaced place".

Saransk was founded in 1641 as a prison on the Atamar Zasechnaya line, on the high left bank of the river. Saranki, not far from its confluence in the river. Insar. In 1655 the Saransk voivode was the ancestor of the great Russian poet M.Yu. Lermontov Peter Lermont. With the loss of military significance, Saransk has become a trade and artisan city, the administrative center of the Saransk Uyezd (1651). In the second volume of the publication "Russia. The complete geographical description of our fatherland, published at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, affirms that Saransk is the best of the towns of the province: "... it is quite extensive and has three squares; of them Cathedral forms the center of the city. On it passed in the old earth wall, the remains of which are now visible only at the end of the city. Nowadays there is a monastery and 4 churches on the Cathedral Square, a building of the presence sites, a magistrate, a prison castle and stone benches ... ". Further it is noted that "the city's trade is significant; its objects - bread, hemp, fat, alcohol, leather, hemp oil and cloth. In the city there are weekly bazaars and 2 fairs, of which one significant ... educational institutions 4 of which one is a women's gymnasium ... ".

The social and economic development of Saransk accelerated the conduct of the railway in 1893. At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. the development of other infrastructure elements is also activated, a power station, a post office, a telegraph office, a telephone exchange, a printing plant, hospitals, pharmacies, libraries, a cinema, etc. are operating. Saransk Fine Arts School, Saransk Society of Fine Arts Lovers.

The steady growth of the population of Saransk was observed before the beginning of the 1990s.

Currently, the urban district of Saransk accounts for about 40% of the population living in the republic, including 60% - urban and 2% - rural; 35% of the economically active population; 38% of the total number of people employed in the national economy of workers and employees; 65% of the total volume of industrial production; 40% of the input of housing stock.

Social infrastructure. In the historical part of Saransk a representative center was formed with administrative and public buildings, often built on individual projects. New buildings - theaters, stadiums, bank buildings, elite residential houses attract attention. They add variety to the urban environment. In addition to the center, there are residential neighborhoods: Lighting Engineering, South-West, Khimmash, and TETs-2. The city has more than 250 built-up streets with public and private houses.

Priority direction of the city development is housing construction. The "Housing" program, developed in the city, is envisaged in the period 2005-2010. building, and in 2011-2020. - Decrease in the annual input of housing. On average for the years 2005-2020. it is planned to commission 79.4 thousand square meters.

The functioning of the city is provided by developing transport systems - gasification of the residential sector, modernization of transport, telephone communication.

The city has 15 hospitals, 7 dispensaries, 22 outpatient clinics, 16 medical centers, 10 paramedic-obstetrical stations, sanatorium "Saransk", sanatoriums for dispensaries of industrial enterprises and educational institutions; 62 general education schools work.

Saransk is an industrial center. The city made an industrial leap during the Great Patriotic War. Evacuated factories from the western regions of the country laid the foundation for its industrial development. In the 1950's and 1960's. in the capital of the republic begins to form a diversified structure of industry, which acquires a modern look in the 1970s and 1980s.

It is represented by the enterprises of machine building and metalworking, electric power industry, chemistry and petrochemistry, food, woodworking, light, medical industry, building materials industry and other industries. Profiling is the machine building and metalworking industry. The most developed are the complex high-tech branches - electrical engineering (electric lamp, production of electrical machines, equipment, cable), electronic.

Among the main enterprises of the machine building complex are Lisma, Electrovypryamitel, Saranskkabel, and Lisma-Lighting. Large enterprises of the city are the plant "Rezinotekhnika" (it is included in the largest oil and gas chemical holding "Sibur"), "Biochemist", instrument-making plant, "Sareks", "Mordovenergo". There is a stable dynamics of development of such enterprises as "RZD Saransk Diesel Locomotive Plant", meat processing complex "Saransky", etc. There is growing production in industries processing local raw materials.

Saransk is a student city. The leading role in the preparation of highly qualified specialists is played by the Mordovian State University. NP Ogareva, Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute. M. Ye. Evsevieva, Saransk Cooperative Institute of the Russian University of Cooperation. The secondary and primary vocational schools function. In addition, the training of personnel in the city is engaged in a number of training and coursework centers and centers that provide training and professional development of specialists.

Saransk is the center of science. The scientific potential of Saransk is represented by university and branch science. Among the centers of high school science is the Mordovian State University. N. P. Ogareva. From the scientific institutions in the city function the Institute of Humanities under the Government of the Republic of Mordovia, the Research, Design and Technology Institute of Power Electronics, "Lisma - VNIIIS them. AN Lodygina, Saransk Branch of the All-Union Research Institute of Technological Physics and Automation, SRI Temp, Mordov Research Institute of Agriculture.

Saransk is the center of culture. In the capital of the republic there are 4 professional theaters, the Mordovian State Philharmonic Society, the State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company Mordovia, the State Chamber Choir, the Saransk City Orchestra of Russian Folk Instruments, libraries, club institutions, museums.

Sports Saransk. The capital of the republic is the sports complex "Mordovia", the Palace of Sports, the stadium "Start", the Ice Palace, sports halls, tennis courts, ski centers, biathlon track.

Cultural heritage. In the cultural landscape of the urban Saransk 207 monuments are allocated, including: 9 - archeology, 131 - history, 25 - urban planning and architecture, 42 - art. The most significant objects of the historical heritage are monuments of history, architecture and art of federal significance:

Pugachevskaya tent - a monument of the history of the XVIII century, covered with legends about the events of 1774;
the grave of sculptor SD Erzi (1876 - 1959);
The St. John the Theologian Church (1693) in Saransk, in the interior of which the baroque iconostasis was preserved;
The St. John the Theologian Church (1707) on the territory of the active Makarovsky Ioanno-Bogoslovsky Monastery is a unique monument of Russian town planning at the beginning of the 18th century. in with. Macarrowing; the interior of the temple and the decor of the facades are close to the Stroganov school of Russian architecture of the turn of the 17th - 18th centuries;
the building of the former Three Saints (Three Saints) Church (1761);
St. Nicholas Church (1802);
a monument to the heroes-stratonovtam PF Fedoseenko,
A.B.Basenko, I.D. Usyskin (sculptor AA Pismenny, architect A. N. Dushkin, 1963);
a monument to soldiers who were born in Mordovia, who died during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945;
a monument to Alexander Pushkin.

In the urban landscape of Saransk, the Memorial and sculptural complex stands out on the bank of the river. Saranki, in the park of Glory. On its territory there are decorative and artistic-monumental compositions dedicated to outstanding compatriots - Admiral FF Ushakov, poets AI Polezhaev, NP Ogarev, Army General MA Purkaev, educator ME Evseyev, ZF Dorofeev, FV Sychkov, SD Erzya, LP Kiryukov, LI Voinov, PS Kirillov, IM Yaushev, M.I. Bezborodov, the president of the "Ruzaevskaya Republic" A. P. Baykuzov. In the park zone in the valley of Saranki, the monument "Forever with Russia" towers, to which the Alley of Friendship leads. In Saransk there are monuments to the poet AI Polezhaev, fighters for Soviet power, Hristo Botev, sculptor SD Erzya, and others.

The objects of material and spiritual heritage are concentrated in museums, among which the largest are the Museum of Mordovian culture, the Mordovian Republican Museum of Fine Arts named after SD Erzi, the Mordovian Republican Local History Museum named after ID Voronin, the Memorial Museum of Military and Labor Victory 1941 - 1945

The Museum of Mordovian culture includes more than 3,000 items of storage, including 30 wooden sculptures of the 18th century, more than 200 icons from the 19th to early 20th centuries, more than 40 books from the 18th to 19th centuries, and over 1,000 objects of everyday life and ethnography.

The exposition of the Mordovian Republican Museum of Fine Arts named after SD Erzya collected unique collections of works by the outstanding sculptor SD Erzya, FV Sychkov, KE Makovsky, VI Jacobi, AP Bogolyubov, A K. Savrasov, A. M. Korin, S. A. Bogdanov-Belsky, I. K. Makarov. A great place is occupied by the works of painters and sculptors of the republics of the Volga and Ural regions - OK Komov,
MK Anikushina, VE Tsigal, PF Ryabov, VD Ilyukhin, EA Nozdrin, AA Rodionov, VA Popkov, VA Bednova, and others.

In the structure of the Mordovian Republican Local History Museum named after ID Voronin, departments of nature, history, rare books, ethnography. In the museum funds (together with branches) there are more than 160 thousand items of storage. The museum stores more than 8,000 copies of books, newspapers, magazines. The fund of material monuments includes a rich ethnographic collection - clothes of peoples living in the territory of Mordovia. Extensive collections of arts and crafts. The fund of fine materials includes painting, including icons, graphics and sculpture of the 16th - 19th centuries.

In the Memorial Museum of the military and labor feat of 1941-1945. collected things, photo and documentary materials about the participants of the Great Patriotic War, the natives of Mordovia, a collection of paintings, drawings, sculptures.

GO Saransk