Animal world

The wildlife of Mordovia is rich and diverse. This is largely due to the unique geographical location of the republic, which is located at the junction of the zone of forests and steppes. As a result, there are typically taiga species of animals, there are people from Siberia, the Far East, the Mediterranean, southern regions.

Of representatives of the class Cyclostomata in the river. Surya previously had a Caspian lamprey. In the river. Moksha and its tributary r. Urquat until the 1970s. a small population of brook lamprey was known, but in recent years it has not been found there. Both species are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Mordovia.

In the reservoirs of the republic there are 40 species of fish. The most representative of the family is the Karp family, which includes 24 species. Of these, roach, bleak, head, dace, ide, bream, ordinary and silver crucian are most common. The family of Wynn is represented by 4 species, of which the most common are loach and mustachioed char. From percussion there are perch, ruff, pike perch and very rarely bersh. Representatives of other families are represented by 1-2 species. Sturgeon in Mordovia marked sturgeon Russian and sterlet, which are included in the Red Book. In the Red Book of the Russian Federation included Russian beastwort and an ordinary underbody. Since the 1970s. these species were practically not recorded in the rivers of Mordovia. Only in recent years in the river. Moksha and a number of its tributaries marked the stump, the fast-paced woman began to master Sura, Moksha and their tributaries. The regional Red Data Book includes 15 species of fish. Acclimatized species is the Far Eastern species - rotan-head. In pond farms, carp, white carp, white cupid, trout and hybrids of sturgeon are grown. Objects of amateur fishing are roach, perch, bream, pike, ide, crucian carp.

 The amphibian class in Mordovia has 11 species. From the tailed amphibians live ordinary and comb-like newts. Both species are common and are found everywhere in characteristic biotopes. The usual species of tailless amphibians are the sharp-pointed frog, the scabbard, the green toad. The hybrid complex of Central European green frogs includes three species: lake, pond and edible. The first two species live everywhere and numerous, and the latter is reliably known only in a number of districts of Mordovia. The Red Book of the Republic of Mordovia includes herbal and edible frogs, red bellies and a gray toad.

The fauna of reptiles includes 7 species. The most common and numerous are the quick-witted lizard and the common lizard, less common is a viviparous lizard and a fragile spindle. The common viper is included in the regional Red Data Book, but its number has increased dramatically in recent years. The snake is the rarest snake in Mordovia. It is noted in the National Park "Smolny", Mordovian State Nature Reserve. PG Smidovich, Zubovo-Polyansky and Tengushevsky districts. The species is included in the Red Book of the Republic of Moldova. In recent years a swamp turtle has been recorded in a number of places, however, its inclusion in the fauna of the republic on the basis of single finds is, apparently, still premature.

There are 258 bird species registered in the territory of Mordovia, of which 192 species nest, 39 are migratory, 19 occasionally fly into our territory and 8 species are wintering.

In the forests the most numerous are passerine birds - finch, forest horsetail, jay, green mocking, black and hedgehogs, chiffchaff, flytrap, mocking, zarinka, nightingale, thrush, large tit, oak. A few variegated woodpecker, hazel grouse, capercaillie, wiggle are found less frequently. Among the birds of prey and owls there live a black kite, an ordinary honey owl, a goshawk, a sparrowhawk, an ordinary buzzard, a long-eared owl, and owl. Rarely in the woods one can find an eagle-dwarf, an owl, a capercaillie and a passerine owl, a three-fingered woodpecker, a wren, a black stork, a golden eagle, a burial ground, a large spotted eagle, a snake-eater, an osprey, a spittle. All these species are listed in the Red Book of Mordovia.

In the floodplains of rivers, in meadows, in nesting, there are often chibis, corncrake, yellow and yellow-wagtail wagtails, meadow mint, cane oatmeal, reed warbler, rarely - oatmeal-dubrovnik, large curlew, ruffah, duple, cropland, common cricket, meadow hobby , all species from the Red Book of Mordovia. The birds of prey are also found here: meadow harrier, swamp owl, whose number in the "mouse" years increases several times. In spring floodplain meadows are flooded with meltwater and serve for passing geese, ducks, gulls, waders in places of accumulations. In abundance in the shallows in the floodplains of the rivers stop the white-fronted geese, the bean goats, the crested blacks, and in some years the red-breasted goose.

The unique nesting places are a variety of reservoirs overgrown with vegetation. On them nestle chomga, black cherry toadstool, large and small drink, mallard, teal, crested and red cherry, marsh, meadow and steppe moons, shepherd, pogonyshi, gull gull, black and white-winged terns. In the dense thickets of vegetation along the coastline, the reed warbler, the Bluethroat, the marmot, and others nest.

Field landscapes occupy the dominant position in the area in the republic. In the vast fields typical inhabitants in the nesting period are the lark of the field, the yellow wagtail, the quail, the gray partridge. Occasionally they arrange their nests here with marsh owls, meadow coins, chibis. As forage biotopes they use the common kestrel, meadow harrier, buzzard, eared owl, marsh owl, white winged terns. Early in the spring for rest and feeding here migrate flocks of geese, gray cranes.

Typical birds of the settlements are the blue dove, the field and house sparrows, rook, jackdaw, black swift, urban and rural swallows, starling, large tit, finch, white wagtail. Occasionally, and not everywhere, ringed turtledove and a long-eared owl nest.

1. Biotopes of large tracts of coniferous and coniferous-broadleaf forests - brown bear, elk, roe deer, spotted deer, wild boar, wolf, fox, badger, squirrel, hare, lynx, marten, mink, forest trot, dormouse, mole, weasel, red vole, capercaillie, hazel grouse, black grouse, gray crane, green woodpecker, three-toed woodpecker, blackbird, nightingale, cyst, yellow, king, crested tit, viper, lizards.
2. Biotopes of island broad-leaved forests, agricultural lands, meadows and meadow steppes - hare-hare, field mouse, common vole, quail, gray partridge, meadow mint; marmot-bobak, speckled ground squirrel, large jerboa, common mole rat, gray hamster, field lark, steppe harrier, garden oatmeal; rare occurrence of representatives of biotopes of the first and second types.
3. Water and water biotopes - beaver, muskrat, raccoon dog, otter, muskrat, magpie-magpie, small tern, mallard, black kite, snipe, white-tailed eagle, lake frog, newt.
> 4. Biotopes of urbanized territories - a house mouse, a gray rat, a blue dove, a house sparrow, a city swallow, a black swift.

In Mordovia, there are 73 species of mammals from 20 families and 6 orders. Many of them are found here constantly, and some are acclimatized. The latter include, in particular, spotted deer and raccoon dog, brought from the Far East, maral - from Siberia. Ondatra, home to which is North America, came to Mordovia from Scandinavia.

The most numerous order of mammals are Rodents - 27 species. Of these, some species of mice (field, forest, house), voles (common, red), gray rat are found throughout the territory. In the forests, common squirrel is often found - a valuable hunting object and representatives of the Sonevy family - hazel, garden, forest dormouse and a shelf. Outwardly they resemble small mice with a fluffy tail like a squirrel. To the rare species of rodents introduced into the Red Book of Mordovia, include a large jerboa, an ordinary mole rat, a marmot-bobak, a river beaver.

The Predatory family has 15 species. These are common and almost everywhere "native" species - fox, weasel, ermine, forest ferret and "new" for the region - raccoon dog, American mink, who settled here not without the help of man. Rare species of predatory animals are the brown bear, lynx, river otter, badger.

A little less - 11 species includes the order Bats. Among them, the rarest gigantic evening is a view from the Red Book of Russia. More often than not, there are water-borne birds, a forest bat, brown ears.

Of the 11 species of insectivores, the hedgehog and the European mole are most known. Small insects, worms eat representatives of shrews - shrews and belozubki (tiny, medium, small, ordinary). The insectivore also includes the Russian desman, a species from the International Red Book. It is preserved in floodplains of large rivers.

Artiodactyls in Mordovia 7 species. These are mainly species that were settled from other areas (wild boar, Siberian roe deer) or which people brought from other regions (spotted and noble deer). The aboriginal inhabitant of the Mordvinian forests is the moose. Previously, there was a free population of the bison in the Mordovian state nature reserve.

Zaytsev 2 species - whitefish (inhabits forest areas) and a hare (prefers open biotopes).

About 20 species of mammals belong to hunting species, the production of which is carried out in the territories of hunting societies, of which the main hunting objects are hare hare and hare, fox, wild boar, elk, common squirrel, marten marten.

Key ornithological territories of Russia (KOTR)

The KOTR program is part of the international program "Important Bird Areas" (IBA), which is devoted to the search and protection of key ornithological territories of international importance throughout the world. KOTR includes: habitats of species under the global threat of extinction; places with a relatively high number of rare and vulnerable species, including the book of the Russian Federation listed on the Red List of the IUCN and Krasnoya. 9 COTS of international importance has been singled out in the republic.



Key ornithological territories of Mordovia