Dubyon district

Dubyon district

The area is 896.9 km2. The population is 13.8 thousand people. (2010). Center - with. The Dubyons.

The district is located in the southeast of the republic, bordering the Penza and Ulyanovsk regions. The characteristic features of the enclosing natural landscape are determined by the location of the district in the province of the forest-steppe of the Volga Upland. In the south and south-east of the municipality there are forest complexes of the valley of the river. Surah. The interaction of forest-steppe landscapes of the Privolzhsky Upland and intrasonal forest complexes of the Sura valley in the territory of the Dubyon region is determined by the presence of a large number of unique ecosystems, some of which are declared to be specially protected natural areas - the "Svetloe" bog, "Od mod" and "Black Birch", Lake Raúžo and The nests of gray herons and gray cranes were noted on the reservoirs of the region. Especially it is necessary to allocate a large colony of marmot-bobak. In steppe ecosystems grow feather grass feather, flea thyme, transylvanian perlovnik, venom poisonous, cornflower Russian.

There are 98 monuments in the territory of the Dubyon region: 38 - history, 5 - urban planning and architecture, 13 - art, 42 - archeology. In the ancient settlement Osh Pando - archaeological monument III - II centuries. BC. at with. Sainina traces of the stay of the Balanovo (Fatyanov) culture of the Bronze Age are discovered. The upper strata belong to the IV-VIII centuries. n. e.

In 1927, the Dubno-Povodomovskaya Mordovian national parish was established.

Quaternary deposits are allocated a number of deposits of building materials: brick loam (Ardatov, Dubyon), brick clay (Duben-2), sand (Morginskoye); there are manifestations of construction sand (Engalychevskoe, Purkaevskoye). Paleogene rocks are confined to sandstones on crushed stone (Kabaevskoye deposit). On the territory of the region, the Upper Carboniferous aquifer is exploited. Operating reserves of groundwater 58 thousand m3 / day. The prevailing part of groundwater has a mineralization of 1.0 - 1.5 g / dm3. According to the chemical composition of water, hydrocarbonate-sulfate calcium-sodium. To provide the population with high quality underground waters, it is necessary to carry out exploration work in the Upper Cretaceous aquifer.

The southeastern border of the region runs the river. Sura; small rivers - Cheberchinka, Poksh-Sialma, Lasha, Lomatka. In the 1950s. on the river. There was a hydroelectric power plant with a capacity of 2,0 kW, power of 8,400 kWh was generated. In the 1980s. 5 small reservoirs (ponds) with a total capacity of 4 571 thousand m3 were created. Surface water goes mainly to the purpose of agricultural production. For their rational use, it is necessary to build ponds in a ravine-girder net. These small reservoirs, in addition to the tasks of agricultural production, could perform fisheries, recreational and other functions.

The structure of the soil cover is dominated by gray forest crushed soils (67%); Chernozems (12%), floodplain (6%) and sod-podzolic (2%) soils occupy a smaller proportion. In the northern part of the region, oak forests predominate on the elevated interfluvial spaces, in the southern, on the sandy above-floodplain terraces of Sura, pine and mixed forests are widespread. Under forests, 26.7% are occupied, under bushes - 1.2% of the area.

The population is mainly employed in agricultural production. All settlements are connected with district roads with a hard (asphalt) covering, their length is more than 140 km. Gasified all the villages of the district, more than 250 industrial and social facilities.

Dubyonki is an Erzya village on the Syukursurma River (Sucherme), the center of the Dubyon District (since 1928). Population 3,2 thousand people. (2010).

The village was formed in the forest-steppe landscapes in the beginning of the XVII century. At the heart of its name is the word "oak" (the settlement has settled at an oak grove). At the end of XIX century. in Dubenki the Zemstvo school was opened and a church was built. An alley of poplars is preserved in the village, planted in 1912 in honor of the 100th anniversary of the victory of the Russian people in the Patriotic War of 1812; created the alley of Glory, monuments to soldiers who died in the years of the Great Patriotic War, Lenin. The nature of the cultural landscape, objects of natural and historical heritage are reflected in the historical museum of local lore.

In 1932 a hemp plant was commissioned. Currently c. Dubyonki is a transport junction on the highways of the republican and local roads. Here are located dairy, bread, starch, brick factories. The district center has a secondary school, a vocational school, a school of arts, a sports school, a library, a cinema, a central district hospital.

Purkaevo is an Erzya village, located on the river. Uchunei (Uchanai, Uchaly). In the layout, a two-line linear development is well expressed. The population is 809 people. (2010). The old name - Nalitovo - connects with pre-Christian Mordovian name Naletka. July 11, 1966 the village received a new name in honor of the army general
M. A. Purkaeva (1894 - 1953) - a native of the village.

Cheberchino is a Russian village. The layout is dominated by street linear buildings. Population 446 people. (2010). Name-hydronym: the village originated on the bank of the river Cheberchinka (from the Tatar word "cheber" - "beautiful"). Settlement Peter I granted for his faithful service and diligence to AI Rumyantsev - the father of the famous general-general of the Field Marshal of the Russian army, statesman
P. A. Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky (1725-1796). The ensemble of the village center is a monument of town-planning (XVII-XIX centuries). The cultural landscape includes the temple complex - the Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God (1798), the Church of the Archangel Michael (second half of the 19th century), the mausoleum (1790).

Chindyanovo - Erzya village, located on the river. Cachlets (Calcite). In the layout of the settlement there are elements of quarterly street construction. Population 524 people. (2010). The name is anthroponym: it has a connection with the pre-Christian names of Chindyan (Chindyas) and Kendya (Kendes). The village is known for the folk ensemble "Erzyanka" - the winner of the All-Union festival "Moscow Autumn", the International Festival "Baltika-89", the republican festivals and regional reviews. He participated in the concert program in honor of the jubilee of the international "silk" way in 1990 in Western Europe - Germany, Switzerland, Austria, France and Belgium.

Dubyon district