Denominations. Temples


The confessional composition of the population of Mordovia was formed in the process of centuries of economic development of the territory. The overwhelming majority of believers adhere to Orthodoxy, refers to the Russian Orthodox Church. The second place among religious associations of the republic is occupied by the Muslim community. Muslim temples currently operate in most of the Tatar villages. The cathedral mosque in Saransk is built.


On August 6, 2006, Saint-Theodore's Cathedral in Saransk was consecrated by His Holiness Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow and All Russia. The temple holds about 3 thousand people. Its height of 73 m is one of the highest temples in the Volga region. The cathedral has two temples: the upper church with three chapels and the lower church (the church of the cross). The main throne of the upper church is consecrated in honor of the memory of the holy righteous warrior Theodore Ushakov, the second chapel - in honor of the Martyr new martyrs, the third - in honor of the Monk Seraphim of Sarov.

Monastic history is one of the most interesting pages of the culture of Mordovia. The first monastery, Purdoshevsky Christmas-Bogorodichny near Temnikov, appeared at the end of the XVI century. In the XVII century. the deserts were founded near Krasnoslobodsk, Gulyaev, urban monasteries in Saransk; in the XVIII century. the monastery's history of the region almost ended, but the efforts of such great local church figures as the abbots Gennady, John, Theodore, Alexander, were preserved and the development of the Predtechev Monastery in Krasnoslobodsk, Petropavlovsk in Saransk, Sanaksar in Temnikov, Sarov Desert in Temnikov Uyezd. Finally, in the nineteenth century we see the flourishing of monasteries, especially women's monasteries - Paygarm, Yakovshinsky, Kurilovsky, Temnikovsky, Chufarov, Kimlyaysky, Kovilyaevsky. Monasteries turned into institutions that gave examples of socio-cultural, economic existence; all without exception the monasteries formed large landscape-architectural ensembles, some of them, for example the Sanaksar, are recognized as architectural monuments of Russian significance. In just three centuries, 42 monasteries were founded on the territory of Mordovia.

In the XX century. Mordovia lost all the monasteries. The revival of monasticism and monasteries began in 1991 with the establishment of the Saransk Diocese. Among the first believers was returned to the Sanaksar Monastery, by that time almost completely restored by restorers. Then the monastic life was revived in the men's Chufarovo Trinity, Krasnoslobodsky Savior Transfiguration and the women's Kurilovsky Tikhvin, Paigarm Paraskevo-Voznesensky, Kovilyaevsky Troitsky, Insara Olginsky monasteries, and also in the Kazan Klyuchevskaya desert near Ardatov. Two monasteries arose on the site of the parishes - the women's Varsonofievsky in the village. Pokrovsky Selishchi and the man in honor of the icon of the Mother of God "Life-giving spring" in the village of Zhuravkino. Finally, the parish of the Makarovskaya Ioanno-Theological Church near Saransk (Makarov's Ioanno-Bogoslovsky Monastery, or the Makarov Pogost, an architectural monument of Russian significance) became a monastery. In recent years, under the Makarov Pogost, a pilgrimage center with a hotel, two monasteries and ten wooden temples, picturesquely scattered around the former park of the landowners Polyanski, was opened. Such a pilgrimage center has no analogs in Russia.

Some monasteries of Mordovia have architectural ensembles, which have a very high aesthetic value. Makarovsky churchyard includes three churches - the summer Ioanno-Theological and the winter Michael-Arkhangelsk and Znamensky. The ensemble of the churchyard is designed taking into account the golden section, it is harmonious and perfect. The main temple has three lights, it is tower-like, decorated with carved decor; its architectural feature is the type of Russian baroque that lasted the most meek time and was replaced by Naryshkin, then the northern baroque brought to Russia by Peter I.

An absolutely remarkable ensemble is the Sanaksar Monastery, located in the flood plain of Moksha. Almost the entire complex of buildings was erected by the architect monk Philaret Bylinin, who first worked in the style of the northern baroque (corps of residential and office buildings), then classicism (hospital and cemetery churches, a noble inn). Art about. Filaret was appreciated in the nineteenth century. About the monastery then wrote: "The location of all the monastic buildings, with the conjugated pleasures of location leads everyone in surprise; the symmetrical correspondence of these, the new in all taste, purity and surprising in general connection constitute an extreme extreme, and the regularity, accuracy and intelligence in the architecture and art scattered everywhere give the viewer a pleasant admiration. "

An interesting ensemble is the Paigarm monastery, built in the New Russian style. The monastery is spread by several streets, the main one of which is formed by the temple complex - the summer Uspenskaya, the winter Ascension churches, the chapel-burial-vault; now the lost belfry is being restored. The monastery is known primarily for its sources, the main one of which is consecrated in honor of Paraskeva-martyr, and two more - in honor of St. Nicholas and St. Seraphim of Sarov.

Many other monasteries of the region suffered much more. Today at the stage of restoration is Krasnoslobodsky Savior-Transfiguration Monastery; the bell tower, the hospital Alexandro-Nevsky church, some cell and office premises were restored. Partly restored Kurilovsky and Chufarov monasteries; The monastic presence in Kovilyaevsky and Kimlyai monasteries is gradually expanding. St.Barsonofievsky Convent in the village of. Pokrovsky Selishchi, starting with a dilapidated ancient wooden church, already has a full-fledged architectural ensemble, including many buildings, including a large stone cathedral.

Thus, Mordovia regained her spiritual appearance; its monasteries are already known throughout the country: pilgrims come to Mordovia from many regions of Russia and from the near abroad. They go first of all to the elders of the Saransk diocese; very famous in the Orthodox spiritual teachers of Russia, the hieromonk, Jerome, Michael, Pitirim, but still alive and well, the elder Theophanes, struggling in the Makarov Monastery; already rising a new generation of educated and spiritually wealthy monks, whose word and participation are needed by believers. In the face of saints in Mordovia, 13 new martyrs of the twentieth century are glorified, and Chufarovsky monastery itself is a monument of martyrdom: there was once a shooting prison, and near the monastery the place of mass burials of victims of political repressions was marked. In the Sanaxar monastery are the relics of three saints - the elder Feodor (Ushakov, 18th century), Admiral Feodor Ushakov (XIX century) and confessor Alexander (Urodov, XX century). To all relics a pilgrimage was opened. In the village of Ichalka in the Michael Archangel Church there are the relics of St. Philaret (early 20th century), a local saint. Pilgrim routes pervade the whole of Mordovia; the main lead to Saransk, Temnikov, Ardatov, Pokrovsky Selishchi, Paygarmu, Bolshoy Chufarovo, Krasnoslobodsk.

Confessional population