The Finno-Ugric World

Finno-Ugric peoples traditionally live in Northern Europe (from north-western Scandinavia and the Baltic Sea to the Northern Urals); in the Middle Volga and the Volga-Kama basin in the Urals; in Central and Eastern Europe, in the basin of the river. Danube, and also in some areas of Western and Eastern Siberia. Individual groups and diasporas of Finno-Ugrians now live in other regions of the world, for example, in the USA and Canada.

Finno-Ugric peoples - this is part of the totality of peoples, called Ural-Yukagir. Their total number in 1961 was 22 million people, in 1975 - 23, and now - about 25 million people. The largest people are Hungarians in number: in 1961 there were 13 million, in 1975 - 14 million, and in 2009 - about 15 million people. (about 90% of Hungarians living in Europe live on the territory of the Republic of Hungary). In addition to the Hungarians, the Finns (about 5 million) and Estonians (about 1 million people) also belong to the large Finno-Ugric peoples. Smaller peoples live on the territory of Russia: the Mordva (843 thousand), the Udmurts (637 thousand), the Mari (604 thousand people), and the Komi, Komi-Permyaks, Karelians, Khanty and Mansi, whose number is comparatively small.

On the territory of large foreign countries, the number of Finno-Ugric people in 2009 was 1.9 million in the US, 1.4 million in the Republic of Romania, 520,000 in Slovakia, 345,000 in Sweden, 315 in Sweden, thousand, in Serbia - 293 thousand, in Ukraine - 156 thousand, in Norway - 40 thousand people. and in Latvia there were no more than 400 people.

According to the 1989 census, the number of Finno-Ugric peoples on the territory of Russia was 3.2 million people, or 2.1% of the total population. In 2002, it decreased to 2.6 million people. and amounted to 1.9%. The number of Finno-Ugric peoples on the territory of Russia increased until 1970, and then declined. For example, in 1926 in Russia, they were home to 2.9 million people, in 1970 - 3.1, in 1979 - 3.0, in 1989 - 3.1 million, and in 2002 - 2.6 million people. Among them, 34.0 thousand Finns, 28.1 thousand Estonians, 3.8 thousand Hungarians, 8.2 thousand Vepsians, 1.9 thousand Sami. Behind the Urals, the Finno-Ugric peoples are Khanty (28.6 thousand) and Mansi (11.4 thousand people). In the Far North of Russia, people belonging to the Samoyed group of the Ural-Yukagir family live: Nenets (41.3 thousand) and very few Selkups (4.2) and Nganasans (0.8 thousand people).

The number of Finno-Ugric peoples living interchangeably with Russians (for example, the Mordvins, Mari, Komi, Karelians) is declining at a faster rate than the number of compactly residing peoples, and one of the reasons for the objective nature is the dispersion of their settlement throughout the country. Other causes of depopulation are low fertility, high mortality, and as a result - a high natural loss, as well as a significant migration outflow of population (emigration). Stopping depopulation is possible only with the help of radical measures of regional demographic policy, the spread of a healthy lifestyle among the population (for example, sports, tourism, etc.), the strengthening of various measures of personal security,

Finno-Ugric republics, districts and areas of residence of the ethnic group occupy 8% of the territory of Russia. And the population living in them is about 9 million people, or 6.3% of the total population of the country.

On average about 70% of the Finno-Ugric peoples of Russia are concentrated in the territory of the Volga-Ural region. However, their resettlement has long had an areal-dispersed character. For example, the Mari live in the Kirov, Nizhny Novgorod, Sverdlovsk regions, Bashkiria and Chuvashia; Udmurts - in Bashkiria, Tatarstan and Siberia. A significant part of the Mordva is settled in the Volgo-Vyatsky (Nizhny Novgorod Region, Chuvash Republic), Povolzhsky (Samara, Penza and Ulyanovsk Regions) and Urals (Orenburg Region, Republic of Bashkortostan) regions, as well as in Siberia and the Far East, Transcaucasia and Central Asia.

The groups of Finno-Ugric settlements were historically located on the vast territory of the Volga-Ural region - from the lower Oka in the west to the upper reaches of the river. White and Kama in the east alternating with other ethnic settlements. At the end of XIX century. Finno-Ugrians settled in South Siberia and Transcaucasia, as well as in cities and industrial centers of the European part of the country.

The modern ethno-demographic situation of Finno-Ugric peoples of Russia and foreign countries is formed according to a complex scenario of declining ethnic groups. The rate of decline in the numbers of many Finno-Ugric peoples of Russia has no equal. A high level of depopulation of Hungarians has developed in the Republic of Hungary, but the main demographic indicators are still better than, for example, the Mordvins or Mari in the Russian Federation. The best indicators of the demographic situation in the Finnish people. The positive balance of natural movement provides Finland with sustainable population growth rates.

Many small Ural peoples of Russia are on the verge of extinction, for example, the Nganasans, Chuvash, Vod, Veps, Izhorians. However, small nations that have a favorable demographic situation, increase their numbers, for example, the Nenets, Khanty, Mansi, Saami, Selkup, Entsy.

Long-term forecasts of demographic development for the Finno-Ugric republics of Russia are extremely pessimistic. However, it is believed that they can be more optimistic. Already, some fertility, health, and life expectancy are improving. On the example of the Republic of Mordovia, it can be said that the level and quality of life of the population are rising, and the qualitative characteristics of the individual are improving. All this contributes to positive demographic shifts not only in the Finno-Ugric regions, but also in Russia as a whole.

The Finno-Ugric World