Temnikovsky District

Temnikovsky District

The area is 1.9 thousand km2. The population is 17.2 thousand people. (2010). The center is the city of Temnikov.

The district is located in the north-west of the republic, bordering the Nizhny Novgorod and Ryazan regions. In its northern part, landscapes of mixed forests of water-glacial plains of the Oka-Don lowland prevail, in the south - the forest-steppe of the Volga Upland. In the north of the district there are pine, mixed and small-leaved forests of the Mordovian State Nature Reserve named after PG Smidovich. To the south of the Moksha valley, fragments of meadow steppes have been preserved. A unique monument of nature is a karst fault in the suburb of Temnikov, 25 meters deep, of which 4 meters is a lake. Among other PAs, the Emashevskaya Grove in the Starouzhovsky Forestry, the tract "Sanaksar Dacha", 2.5 km to the north-east of the village. Alekseyevka, cedar - tree-long-liver in the village of Nizhi Borki, 3 blue firs in Temnikov, Lakes Bolshoy Palkino (Alekseyevka village), Vyadkishevo (Chizhikovo village), Zhegalovo, Undovischa, Svetloe (Temnikov). Lakes of the Moksha floodplain are nesting places for many rare birds, including the gray crane.

103 monuments were registered in the Temnikovskiy district: 41 - history, 27 - urban planning and architecture, 4 - art, 31 - archeology. In the cultural landscape of the municipal district, objects of federal significance are of special importance: the grave of Admiral FF Ushakov (1744-1817) in the village of Sanaxar on the territory of the Sanaksar Christmas-Bogorodichny Monastery, the Assumption Church (1827), the trade building (mid-XVIII century). , the buildings of the city government, the city primary school and city school in Temnikov, the Sanaksar Monastery, the St. Nicholas Church (1798) in the village. Uray III; a monument of federal importance is also declared an ancient settlement (XIV-XV cc.) in the vicinity of. Old city.

Memorable dates Temnikovskogo area: 1536 - the foundation of Mr. Temnikov; 1578 - the beginning of the construction of the zashchka line along the line Temnikov - Alatyr - Tetyushi; 1659 - the foundation of the Sanaksar Monastery; 1705 - the foundation of the Sarov Monastery; 1780 - approval of Catherine II emblem of Temnikov; 1785 - the opening of the Kondrovka paper mill; 1813 - the organization of Admiral FF Ushakov in the city of Temnikov hospital for the treatment of soldiers wounded in battles with Napoleonic troops; 1897 - opening of the 1st Zemstvo library in Temnikov; 1918 - the creation of the orchestra of Russian folk instruments under the direction of LI Voinov; 1928 - the formation of Temnikovsky district; 1932 - commissioning of Temnikovsky sawmill "Lesgortop"; 1932 - commissioning of the Zhegalovsky Starch Plant; 1936 - creation of the Mordovian state nature reserve; 1939 - the opening of the Temnikovsky Teachers' Institute; 1941 - the beginning of operation of Purdoshan Starch Plant; 1967 - commissioning of the production capacities of the factory for the production of capacitors in Temnikov; 1968 - Opening of the House-Museum of the composer LI Voinov in Temnikov; 1970 - commissioning of a new bridge across the river. Moksha near Temnikov.

On the territory of the region, deposits of brick clays (Gorkovskoye, Purdoshanskoe), construction sands (Degtyarevskoye), carbonate rocks on crushed stone (Purdoshanskoe); The manifestations of brick loam (Kichatovskoe, Maksimovskoe, Ureiskoye), construction sand (Mokshanskoye-1, Mokshanskoye-2, Pavlovskoye, Purdoshanskoe), sandy-gravel mixtures (Staroyamskoye) are highlighted. The Upper Carboniferous and Upper Carboniferous-Assel aquifers are exploited. Reserves of groundwater - 327.6 thousand m3 / day. The chemical composition of the water is sulphate-hydrocarbonate calcium-magnesium. The operational reserves and quality of groundwater can meet the needs of all water users.

The main river is Moksha, among the tributaries of which are Satis, Pushta, Uzhovka, Uray. The area of ​​the Moksha catchment in the city limits is 15,800 km2. The average long-term runoff is 53.7 m3 / s, its volume is 1 694.8 million m3 per year. In the average water year 79% of its annual volume passes in spring, 6.5% in winter and 14.5% in summer and autumn.

Black soil (30%), sod-podzolic (22%), floodplain (20%), gray forest soils (17%) are distinguished in the structure of the soil cover of agricultural lands. In natural vegetation, coniferous and mixed forests predominate. Under forests, 53.6% are occupied, and under bushes - 3.3% of the area. A significant part of its territory in the northern part (32 000 hectares) is occupied by the forests of Mordovia State Nature Reserve. PG Smidovich.

The region's industry is mainly represented by enterprises that process agricultural, mineral and forest raw materials. In the area, a lot of work is being done to develop the social infrastructure. Most roads have asphalt cover, all settlements are gasified. The industrial potential will be built up through the reconstruction and modernization of existing production facilities. It is expedient to develop the processing of agricultural products and establish a tourist center. Temnikov and its surroundings have rich recreational resources, nature monuments, history and culture, providing the possibility of creating a recreation and tourism zone here.
Temnikov is a city; the center of Temnikovskiy district (since 1928). The population of 7,2 thousand people. (2010).

The city is located in the landscapes of mixed forests. It was founded at the turn of the 14th - 15th centuries. on the left bank of the Moksha; from 1536 on the right (8 km upstream). According to one version, the name comes from the Turkic "temnik" - the Tatar commander over the "darkness" (10 thousand people); on the other - related to the location - in dark, impenetrable places.

Since the end of the XVI century. the city of Temnikov is the center of Temnikovskiy district. Its architectural appearance is due to the peculiarity of the landscape and the peculiarities of the history of evolution. At the end of the XVIII century. elements of radial-circular layout appeared.

Remains of the ramparts and moats of the city-fortress; the church dedicated to the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1827) and the Nativity of Christ (1821); monuments of civil and industrial construction of the XIX century: the building of the former hospital (1809), which was supported by FF Ushakov (now - the museum of local lore named after Admiral FF Ushakov), the monastery inn (early XIX century ), the county male school (1819), the city's three-class male school (1899), the zemstvo hospital (end of XIX century), the zemstvo board (1904), the houses of merchants and wealthy people. In the city works the Orthodox Center. F. F. Ushakov, House-Museum of the composer L. I. Voinov (1898-1967) - born in Temnikov. In the city there are monuments to soldiers who died during the Great Patriotic War, V.I. To Lenin.

Information about the objects of natural and historical heritage is concentrated in the Temnikovsky Historical and Local History Museum, which is located in the monument building, built in 1812 under the hospital at the expense of the admiral of the Russian Fleet FF Ushakov. Representatives of the flora and fauna of the district are shown in the nature department. In historical sections the history of the birth and development of Temnikov is presented. In the exposition, subjects of everyday life of peoples living and living on the territory of the region are Mordvinians, Moksha, Tatars, Russians. In the department of modern history there are materials about the participants of the Great Patriotic War, including those awarded by the F.F. Ushakov medal, the educator of the Mordvin people Z.F. Dorofeev, the organizer and artistic director of the folk instruments orchestra L.I. Voinov, the organizer of the Temnikovskaya hospital physician AI Rudyavsky.

 At present, in planning terms, the city is a compact formation located on the right bank of the Moksha. The city center remained in the historical part. It is built up mainly by single-storey wooden houses with a rare inclusion of two-storey public buildings. Quarters of the new capital 2-, 3-, 5-storey buildings are located in the eastern part of the city. The industrial and warehouse area was formed in the northeast. In the city there are factories of small lamps, dry skim milk, vegetable-drying. Social sphere is represented by 2 general education, music, art and sports schools, agricultural college, medical school, vocational school, central regional and children's libraries, the House of Culture, a polyclinic, the central regional hospital.

Alekseyevka is a Russian village founded in the 18th century. The prevailing street linear development. The population is 227 people. (2010). Name-anthroponym: the village belonged to Temnikov Alexei Mylnikov. Admiral of the Russian Fleet F.F. Ushakov spent his childhood here and the last years of his life. In 1982, a memorial sign was installed in the place where the manor was located.

The complex of buildings of the Sanaksar Monastery in honor of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1765-1820) is a monument of town-planning in 2 km from Temnikova. It was built under the guidance of I. I. Ushakov, then F. I. Bylinin. The Church of the Nativity of Christ was built in 1774. The main entrance - the pre-church church was established in 1776. In the fence there is the grave of F. F. Ushakov. The architecture of the Sanaxar monastery is of high artistic value.

Temnikovsky District