The climate of Mordovia is moderately continental, characterized by a cold frosty winter and a moderately hot summer.

The radiation balance of the active surface under average cloud conditions is 1 384-1 473 MJ / m2. The highest values ​​of radiation balance are observed in June - 332-338 MJ / m2. In the cold period of the year (November-February) it is negative. The minimum value (-36 MJ / m2) is in January.

The duration of sunshine for the year, according to the Saransk aviation weather station, reaches 2,029 hours, maximum (299 hours) are observed in June. There are 93 days without sun in the year, the greatest number of them is observed in November, December, January - 18, 20, 14, respectively.

In general, the territory of the republic is under the influence of air masses of temperate latitudes, carried by the prevailing western air currents. Often the weather is determined by the warm air masses coming from the southern cyclones from the Black, Mediterranean and Caspian seas. Relatively often, the republic falls under the influence of dry continental air masses brought from the southeast. Cold air masses invade from Scandinavia and the Barents Sea.

The wind regime is formed under the influence of circulating climate factors and local physical and geographical features. In January winds predominate in the south-west and south directions, in July - north-western and northern. Average annual wind speeds are small (3.3-4.8 m / s), strong winds (more than 15 m / s) are possible, their maximum speeds are 21-23 m / s, gusts are 28-42 m / s .

The average annual air temperature is + 4.1 ... + 4.4 ° C. The coldest month is January: the average monthly air temperature is in the range from -11.1 to -11.6 ° C. The absolute minimum was -42 ... -47 ° С. The warmest month is July, its average temperature is + 18.7 ... + 19.1 ° С. The absolute maximum reached + 37 ... + 39 ° С, in 2010 - + 39 ... + 41 ° С, at the MSU MS - +42 ° С.

The average annual amount of precipitation is 500-550 mm. The maximum number of them falls in July - 71-79 mm, the minimum - in February and March - 22-29 mm.

The average annual relative air humidity is within 75-76%, the maximum values ​​(83-85%) it reaches in the winter months, the minimum (61-63%) in May and June. The highest average monthly deficit of saturation is observed in June - 8,4-9,0 hPa.

The beginning, end and duration of the seasons are conditional. They are determined on the basis of the dates of a stable transition of the mean daily temperature through 0 and +15 ° C.

The year is divided into warm and cold periods. A warm period of the year is established from the moment when the mean daily temperature passes through 0 ° C to positive values. It begins on March 31 - April 2, ends on November 4-6, its duration is 217-221 days. The cold period of the year comes from the moment of stable transition of the average daily air temperature through 0 ° C to negative values. It lasts about 5 months (144-148 days).

In winter, overcast weather prevails with slight frosts (-10 ... -15 ° С), but in very cold winters periods with severe frosts are noted. In some years with warm and unstable winters there are thaws with an intensity of up to + 4 ... + 7 ° С. The number of days with thaw per month is from 3-4 to 7-8. The unfavorable phenomena of the winter period include strong winds and snowstorms, ice-frost formations, fogs. The average number of days with fogs in the cold period of the year is from 15 to 25, their average duration is 72-118 hours.

Spring begins in late March - early April. Its forerunner is the arrival of rooks, in early April, starlings and larks arrive. In the middle of May, bird cherry bloom, at the end of the month - lilac. Spring ends with the transition of the average daily air temperature through +15 ° C (May 27-29), the duration of spring is 57-58 days. Unfavorable phenomena in the spring period are cold and frost returns, droughts and dry winds. The latter are celebrated annually. The signs of dry wind are relative humidity of air less than 30% at an air temperature above +25 ° C and wind of at least 5 m / s.

The period with an average daily air temperature of +15 ° C and above is assumed to be summer, its duration is 91-96 days, it ends on August 28-31. Unfavorable phenomena in the summer are heavy downpours, hail, thunderstorms, squalls, drought, dry winds. Torrential rains blur the upper fertile soil layer, carry valuable soil material into gullies, rivers, and cause lodging of vegetation. Monthly average number of days with heavy showers (more than 10 mm) is 1-2, with dry winds of medium intensity - 3-8.

Autumn comes August 29 - September 1, ends in the first decade of November. Its duration is 65-69 days. In the beginning of September, the fall of the poplar begins, by the middle of September - at the birch, maple. The weather regime in the autumn is unstable, precipitation often has a mixed nature. Adverse phenomena of autumn: early frosts on the surface of the soil and in the air, fogs, ice.

Agroclimatic conditions

The territory of Mordovia is divided into three agroclimatic regions: western, central and eastern.

The vegetation period (the transition of the mean daily air temperature through +5 ° C and above) comes on April 14-16, vegetation of perennial grasses and winter crops starts, the buds in fruit and berry crops swell. In the middle of May the cherry blossoms, at the beginning of the third decade - the apple tree. The vegetation period lasts 178-183 days, during this time of positive temperatures, 2,600-2,650 degrees is accumulated.

The duration of the growing season is affected by frosts. In spring they end on the average on May 4-9, but frost cases are possible in the first decade of June. In most of the republic, the first frosts in the fall begin on September 24-30. The average duration of the frost-free period is 140-147 days.

With the transition of the mean daily air temperature through +10 ° C (May 1-3), the period of active plant vegetation begins, it lasts 141-145 days. During this period of active temperatures, 2 250-2 400 deg is accumulated. The sum of summer positive temperatures (average daily air temperature above +15 ° C) reaches 1 700-1 800 deg. In general, heat reserves during the vegetative period contribute to the maturation of crops.

The topping of winter crops is observed on 9-15 June, waxy ripeness comes on July 18-22. Spring crops reach wax ripeness in late July - early August.

According to average long-term data, the conditions for water supply in the republic are satisfactory for the formation of crop yields. Mordovia refers to the zone of unstable hydration: years with sufficient or even abundant moistening often alternate with arid. Basically, during the warm period of the year (April-October) precipitation falls to 345-370 mm, during the active vegetation period - 250-270 mm.

The average monthly SCC values ​​on the territory of the republic are 1.0-1.4, the values ​​of the SCC for the period May-August are within 1.1-1.2.

The humidity of the air is also a characteristic of the state of humidification. During the growing season, the relative humidity of air is often reduced to 30% or less, the number of such days during this period is 20-31, the maximum (8-12) is observed in May.

The growing season ends on October 11-14. At the end of October and the first decade of November, the first snow cover appears, it is unstable, it lies for a short time. Steady snow cover on the field with winter crop is formed on the average on November 23 - December 1. The earliest date of education was October 5, the latest - on January 4. The height of the snow cover increases during the winter, reaching on average for a long period of the highest value in the first - second decade of March, and is equal to predominantly 25-30 cm.

The climate of Mordovia allows you to cultivate a variety of cereals, technical, vegetable crops, potatoes, engage in horticulture, develop multi-sectoral livestock.


A feature of the climate of the modern period is the fact of a global increase in the near-surface air temperature. On the territory of Mordovia from 1936 to 2010, the value of the linear trend coefficient for a number of average air temperature anomalies as a whole was 0.10 ° C for 10 years, while the temperature increase was not monotonous. On the presented graphs, one can single out a series of fluctuations. The trend of the increase in the average annual air temperature for the territory of Mordovia was most clearly manifested in 1991-2010.

The increase in average annual air temperature values ​​was mainly due to warming in the winter. This circumstance indicates a softening of the continentality of the climate, an increase in the role of cyclonic activity, which led to an increase in cloudiness and precipitation. The time series of anomalies of annual and seasonal precipitation are presented in graphs. Linear trends in the last thirty-year period indicate a tendency for an increase in the precipitation of the cold period.

Climate map