The groundwater

The territory of the Republic of Mordovia is located in the southwestern part of the Volga-Sur and north-western periphery of the Volga-Khoper artesian basins.

Waters of Quaternary sediments

Quaternary deposits are associated with waters associated with rocks of different genesis. The most significant for water users are the modern-middle quaternary alluvial aquifers and fluvioglacial aquifers (complexes).

Aquiferous (locally-slightly water-bearing) Lower Quaternary-modern alluvial horizon (complex) is confined to the valley complex. Widening sediments are sands of different grains. The waterlogged rocks are 10-22 m thick. Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic clay deposits usually serve as underlying water. The water is usually non-pressure. Depth of their occurrence up to 17 m. Flow rates of springs vary up to 0,5 l / s. The supply of the aquifer is due to the infiltration of atmospheric precipitation. In addition, the horizon is flooded with water. Groundwater is discharged into the hydrographic network. The chemical composition of the waters is hydrocarbonate-sulfate calcium-sodium and magnesium-calcium. Mineralization to 0.9 g / dm3. The water is used by the population through the arrangement of wells and springs.

Aquiferous (locally-slightly water-bearing) fluvioglacial horizon. Water-bearing rocks are quartz sands, mostly fine-grained, rarely medium-grained, well-sorted. The total thickness of the deposits is up to 7.6 m, in some cases 12.5 m. The depth of the aquifer is up to 6.0 m. In most of the area of ​​distribution, the aquifer lies first from the surface and is free-flowing with a free groundwater surface. The water availability of the horizon is low, the cost of springs is up to 0.55 l / s. The coefficient of sand filtration is 0.45 m / day. Waters of the horizon according to the chemical composition of hydrocarbonate-calcium, in single cases sulfate-sodium, fresh, the value of mineralization ranges from 0.48 to 0.65 g / dm3. The waters are mild and moderately hard, with a total hardness of 0.76-5.75 meq / liter. The food of the horizon occurs due to infiltration of atmospheric precipitation. Unloading is carried out in ravine-girder net. The aquifer is used by the local population for domestic purposes.

Waters of Paleogene and Upper Cretaceous deposits

Underground waters are distributed in the southern and south-eastern parts of the republic. The most important economic importance is the following aquifers (complexes).

Aquiferous (slightly water-bearing) Syzran terrigenous complex (horizon). Most of the water is enclosed in the thickness of sand, fissured aprons, sandstones, oporniform sandstones. Water availability is uneven. Springs in the upper reaches of streams and rivers have a rate of about 3 liters per second. The water is soft and low in mineralization, the total hardness is 3.6 meq / l, the dry residue is 330 mg / l.

Aquiferous (slightly water-bearing) Upper Cretaceous carbonate series. The water-bearing rocks of the complex are fractured chalk and chalk-like marl. The water is free-flowing fissure-vein, lying at a depth of up to 25.5 m. The flow rates of the springs are 1.0-2.5 l / s. The waters have low mineralization and softness, the dry residue is 137 g / dm3. Water has a good drinking quality, but due to limited distribution and low production rates can be used for water supply to small water users.

The waters of the Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits

In the section of Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits widely distributed within the republic, several aquifers and low-water horizons were recorded.

Aquiferous (slightly water-bearing) Lower Cretaceous terrigenous complex. Water-bearing rocks are fractured gullies, sandstones and fine-grained sands lying in strata of clays in the form of layers. Depth of occurrence of groundwater up to 20 m. The waters of the complex have a small and unstable flow rate. Underground waters are soft, slightly mineralized, hydrocarbonate sodium, quite suitable for small water supply. The main source of groundwater supply are atmospheric precipitation.

Water-bearing (weakly-water) Jurassic terrigenous complex. The waters are confined to fine-grained and fine-grained sands, sandy clays and to marl layers. Depth of occurrence of water-bearing rocks is from 6.8 to 208.5 m. The debottness of horizons is insignificant, which is due to the weak water yield of the enclosing rocks. They are used for household needs by small water consumers through the exploitation of log houses in the north-western part of the republic.

 The waters of Permian and Carboniferous deposits

The water-bearing strata of the Permian and Carboniferous deposits combine into an independent section due to the lithological features of the aquifers. They are represented by carbonate rocks - limestones, dolomites fractured, cavernous.

The water-bearing Carboniferous-Permian carbonate complex is the main source for large-scale centralized water supply. The formation of groundwater is mainly due to the infiltration of atmospheric precipitation in the outlets on the day surface of carbonate deposits. These conditions include the southern part of the Alatyr Uplift in the northwestern part of the republic, the priklonovaya part of the Oka-Tsninsky shaft, located west of Mordovia, and some parts of the Sursky-Mokshin uplifts within the basin of the river. The Issa. In the central part of the republic, waters are opened at a depth of 50-100 m, in the southeast - 150-200 m.

In western and central Mordovia, the waters have a reduced mineralization with a dry residue content of up to 0.5 g / dm3 and a total hardness of 1.0 to 15.0 meq / l with a predominance of carbonates. By the nature of the mineralization of water, there are hydrocarbonate calcium-magnesium, hydrocarbonate-sulfate magnesium-calcium composition. In the eastern part of Mordovia, the waters have an increased mineralization with a dry residue content of 1.0 to 3.0 g / dm3, a total hardness of up to 30 meq / l and a chloride-sulfate sodium composition.

The aquiferous (slightly water-bearing) Lower Carboniferous terrigenous-carbonate complex is developed everywhere. The chemical composition of the water is close to the underground waters of the Upper-Middle Carboniferous horizon, the dry residue content is 282 mg / l. The waters have a chloride-hydrocarbonate calcium-sodium composition.

The waters of the Devonian and pre-Devonian deposits

In the context of the Devonian deposits, a whole series of aquifers has been discovered. According to the chemical composition of water, chloride, sodium-calcium with mineralization up to 176.9 g / dm3 and with a total hardness of up to 985 meq / liter.

Underground waters of pre-Devonian deposits are exposed in the thickness of fine-grained sandstones at a depth of 1 480 m from the surface. They have a chloride sodium-calcium-magnesium composition with a mineralization of 156.6 g / dm3 with a bromine content of 80.0 mg / dm3. These waters are of interest as raw materials for the chemical industry.

Groundwater resources

The Volga-Sura artesian basin occupies the main part of the territory of the republic (80%). Centralized water intakes and promising areas with approved groundwater reserves for water supply of the cities of Saransk, Ruzaevka, Krasnoslobodsk, Ardatov and village are located within its boundaries. Large Berezniki, as well as intakes of district centers, operating on unapproved reserves.

The Volga-Khoper artesian basin occupies only the south-western part of the republic (about 20%). On its territory there are water intakes of regional centers (the Zubov Polyana River, the Torbeevo and Insar rivers) operating on unapproved reserves and promising areas with approved groundwater reserves for water supply in Kovylkino, Insar and r . Torbeevo village.

The forecasted operational resources of groundwater (PEERV) are 2 604.4 thousand m3 / day, including groundwater of drinking quality (with mineralization less than 1.5 g / dm3), 2 314.8 thousand m3 / day. Provision of forecasted resources of drinking quality is 3.04 m3 / day per person. As of January 1, 2011, on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia, the operational reserves of groundwater in 21 sites of deposits in the amount of 447,485 thousand m3 / day were explored. The degree of reconnaissance of the forecasted operational resources of groundwater is 17.2%.

Out of 21 deposits and a section of deposits existing on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia, only 11 are exploited. The degree of development of the explored operational reserves is 31.2%. The availability of the explored operational reserves of groundwater for 1 person is 0.52 m3 / day.

PEERV are concentrated in fractured, cavernous and sometimes karstic limestones and dolomites of Permian and Carboniferous deposits and amount to 2.604 million m3 / day, including groundwater of drinking quality (with mineralization less than 1.5 g / dm3) - 2 314.8 thousand m3 / day. Provision of forecasted resources of drinking quality is 2.7 m3 / day per person.

For water supply to consumers in southeastern and eastern Mordovia, it is advisable to develop the mineralized waters of the Carboniferous-Permian carbonate complex and fresh waters of the Volga-Valanginian and Upper Cretaceous aquifers. PERPV of the Upper Cretaceous Aquifer - 152 thousand m3 / day, and the resources of the Volga-Valanzhinsky horizon - 7.94 thousand m3 / day.

On the territory of the Republic of Mordovia, 3 sections of mineral waters of various types have been identified. Reserves of mineral groundwater are approved at 3 sites of the Saransk deposit. As of January 1, 2011, the explored reserves of mineral groundwater were 574 m3 / day. In recent years (2001-2010), they have not increased. Actual selection in 2009 in the Republic of Mordovia amounted to 2.37 m3 / day. The degree of development of mineral resources was 0.4% of the explored operational reserves. Mineral water production is carried out by 2 water users.

Underground mineral waters of the balneological composition are confined to the deposits of the middle and upper Devonian. Potential operational reserves exceed 2 thousand m3 / day.

 Mineral water Mokshanka. The source was discovered in 1987. The depth of the well is 340 m. The reaction of water is slightly alkaline, pH is 7.15-7.6. The mineralization of water varies from 6.98 to 15 g / dm3. The chemical composition of the water is chloride-sodium. In its composition, the anions of chlorides, sulfates, and hydrocarbons are predominant; in the composition of cations - sodium, calcium, magnesium. Of the specific components found fluorine - 2,1-2,8 mg / dm3, bromine - 19-22, iodine - 0.1, iron - 0.4 mg / dm3. According to the gas composition, water is nitrogen-carbonic: nitrogen is 14.47 mg / dm3, carbon dioxide is 14.34 mg / dm3. The water temperature at a spout of 80 ºС.

According to the balneological conclusion, "Mokshanka" is a chloride medium-mineralized treatment and table water, close in composition with water "Minskaya" and "Essentuki-17", is used in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. It is especially indicated for the treatment of chronic gastritis with secretory insufficiency, chronic cholecystitis, chronic colitis. It is recommended for healthy people to improve digestion. In addition to ingestion, mineral water is used for the preparation of therapeutic mineral baths, having a calming effect on the human body and facilitating the normalization of metabolism.

Industrial water. Deep wells (1.0-1.5 km) opened and tested with hydrogeological pumping underground waters, confined to the Devonian sediments, as well as to the rocks of the Upper Proterozoic.

Of the rare elements found in groundwater are bromine, boron, iodine, strontium and lithium. The concentration of the last four is lower than the norms of classifying them as industrial. The high content of bromine in underground waters deserves attention. The concentration of this element varies from 400 to 800 mg / dm3 with the standard of reference to the industrial 200 mg / dm3. The ground waters of the Devonian and Proterozoic are characterized as a component of anti-ice treatment of the roadway in place of salt imported to the republic from other regions of Russia.

Approximately operational reserves of groundwater, suitable for industrial extraction of bromine, are about 1 thousand m3 / day. In this case, 200-250 m³ / day of brine enriched with bromine can be obtained from one well. The use of brines is currently possible from existing wells in Saransk (JSC Vodogryazelechebnitsa), settlement Yasnaya Polyana (recreation center in Zubovo-Polyansky district), p. Lopatino of the Torbeevsky district.

The groundwater


Groundwater resources


Artesian basins


The feeding area of ​​the Carboniferous-Permian aquifer


The mineralization of the waters of the Carboniferous-Permian aquifer


The fluorine content in the water of the Carboniferous-Permian complex