Environmental framework

Environmental framework

The system of specially protected natural territories (SPNA) is a territorial combination of functionally and territorially complementary protected areas, organized taking into account the landscape structure of the region and interactions with various forms of economic activity. Their ultimate goal is to ensure the conditions for sustainable socio-economic development, preserve and improve the environment and resource-replicating functions of landscapes, biological diversity.

The ecological framework unites various types of PAs, water protection, soil protection, sanitary, forest park, forests and provides a territorial link between the elements of the whole system, the exchange of elements of biological diversity, the ecological balance of regional heat and mass transfer. Ecological corridors as elements of the ecological framework serve as an important functional element of the whole system of nature management, ensuring minimization of the development of exo-geodynamic processes, replenishment of groundwater resources, purification of atmospheric air, conservation of biological diversity.

The ecological framework of the Republic of Mordovia is defined by the morphological structure of landscapes of mixed forests of water-glacial plains, broad-leaved forests and forest-steppes of secondary morainic plains, broad-leaved forests and forest-steppes of erosion-denudation plains, and by natural territorial complexes of river valleys.

Features of the structure of the landscape envelope in the territory of Mordovia suggest the need to identify the two main types of zones of ecological balance.

1. Regional. Landscapes of mixed forests of water-glacial and adjoining ancient alluvial plains where significant forest areas were preserved. Their functions: environmental protection of the territory from the impact of technogenic systems in Central Russia; replenishment of groundwater resources of the main exploited aquifer; formation of a sustainable, environmentally friendly river flow; conservation of biological diversity. These zones have a continuation in neighboring regions (Ryazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Ulyanovsk, Penza regions and Chuvashia).

2. Republican. Landscapes of deciduous forests of secondary morainic and erosion-denudation plains, where small forest massifs are distributed among agricultural lands. Their main purpose is to stabilize the water balance, to limit the development of erosion processes. They will create prerequisites for the formation of a unified system of specially protected natural territories in the conditions of the forest-steppe of the Volga Upland of eastern Mordovia. Their role is very significant from the point of view of stabilizing the geoecological situation in the areas of localization of industrial units and points, especially the Saransk-Ruzaevsky industrial hub.

The ecological framework of the Republic of Mordovia includes SPNA: PG Smidovich Mordovian State Natural Park, Smolny National Park, 93 natural monuments - 35 botanical, 27 water, 18 complex, 3 geological and 8 zoological, memorial sites representing aesthetic, scientific -cognitive, historical value, exotic manifestations of natural processes, usually organized without alienation of the land, with responsibility for their preservation on the owner (user).

Elements of the ecological framework should contour the highly productive agricultural lands of meadow-steppe landscapes with fertile black earth. In this connection it is necessary:

- provide for measures to increase forest cover and expand protective forest stands (water protection, field protection, roadside);

- to achieve an increase in the production of agricultural products, mainly by increasing yields and using existing arable land without expanding it.


Mordovian State Nature Reserve named after PG Smidovich was founded in 1935, in 1936 it received the status of a state one. It is located on the right bank of Moksha in the Temnikovskiy district, in the north it borders on the Nizhny Novgorod region. Its area is 32,148 hectares, including 98.4% of forests, 0.9 meadows, marshes - 0.2, and water bodies - 0.5%. The reserve is a research and environmental state organization created to provide a permanent study of natural natural processes, primarily related to the functioning of living matter, conservation and restoration of biological diversity, excluding any forms of direct economic use of natural resources. In the reserve natural landscapes of pine-broadleaf forests of water-glacial plains of the forest-steppe zone are preserved.

The reserved territory lies in the interfluve of Moksha and its right tributary of Satis. The indigenous rocks are represented by highly fractured limestones and dolomites of the Upper Carboniferous, overlain in the central part of the interfluve by clays, sands, sandstones, and marls of the Middle Jurassic. The cloak of Quaternary sediments consists of morainic loams with interbeds of sand, clay, pebbles and boulders; fluvioglacial sands, often with gravel and pebbles of different composition; alluvial sand deposits of the floodplain terraces. Modern marsh deposits are mainly represented by peat with interlayers and lenses of loams.

The maximum absolute marks are about 190 m. The relief is slightly wavy with a general slope towards Moksha. Characteristic are small dune-shaped elevations, hollow and sink depressions of karst and suffosive origin. In the valley of Moksha there are four terraces and a floodplain. The absolute mark of the water edge in Moksha is 101 m.

The hydrographic network is represented by the rivers Moksha, Pushto, Satis, Sarovka, Glinka, and others. Moksha, on a small stretch, ishes the southwestern boundary of the reserve. The main river is Pushta (length 28 km). It has a ramified network of tributaries - small forest streams, streams and logs, reviving in the spring during snowmelt. Pushta is a typical forest river, flows into Satis - the right tributary of the Moksha. In its lower reaches there are a lot of old people - Sumezhnoe, Pecherki, Karetnoye, Lokovoe and others. The largest lake of the reserve is Inorka (depth more than 11 m).

The most common type of vegetation in the reserve is pine forests, black-headed, lichen, moss-lichen, cowberry, lily-of-the-valley, sphagnum, steppe with an undergrowth of broom and gorse, fresh with linden undergrowth, marsh with ledum, blueberry, cowberry, cranberries, etc. Pine is also included in the composition of stands with a predominance of hardwoods - lime, birch, aspen. A small area is occupied by spruce forests with a herbaceous cover of blueberries, sour cherries, ferns. In the flood plain of Moksha, oak and black alder forests grow, in the undergrowth of which there are cherry, blackberries, buckthorn, black currants, raspberries, etc .; floodplain meadows are widespread.

In total, 750 species of vascular plants, 77 species of mosses and 83 species of lichens are registered in the flora of the reserve. In the flora, such rare species as the Venus shoe is real, the redhead is red, the walnut is alive, the lunyke is alive.

The fauna is represented by 329 species (including 65 mammal species, elk, spotted deer, wild boar, bear, lynx, beaver, muskrat, camel-dwarf, etc.). 215 species of birds are registered, some of them belong to taiga species: owl polar, nutcracker, clyster. Among the rare - the stork is black, eagle spot, golden eagle, white-tailed eagle, osprey, serpentine. The fauna includes 10 species of amphibians, 7 - reptiles, 32 - fish, about 2,000 representatives of invertebrates.

The staff of the reserve develops scientific bases for nature protection, conservation of biological diversity of the biosphere, reproduction and rational use of natural resources. In the reserve there is a "museum of nature", ecological education is developing, in plans - development of ecological tourism, expansion of museum expositions, development of a network of ecological paths and routes.


The Smolny National Park was created by the Russian Government Decree No. 229 of March 7, 1995. Its appearance became a logical continuation of the state policy on the protection of the nature of Mordovia. The national park, being by definition a territory excluded from economic exploitation with the purpose of preserving landscapes and ecosystems, has a special ecological, historical and aesthetic value and is used in recreational, scientific and cultural-educational purposes. The primary task in its organization was to study the territory for the development of an overall environmental management strategy. Currently, systematic work is underway here to form a cultural landscape, research on the study of rare and endangered plant and animal species, training practices for students of higher educational institutions of Mordovia, and excursions of schoolchildren are held. Finally, Smolny offers an ever-widening range of recreational services and, in this aspect, is a promising object of public and private investment.

The park with an area of ​​36 385 hectares is located in the north-eastern part of the Republic of Mordovia. In its borders there are 10 settlements with a population of about 2 thousand people. The largest of them is Smolny.

The territory of the national park is confined to the north-western part of the Volga Upland. Characteristic is the decrease in absolute altitudes from north to south from 217 m in the watershed areas of Alatyr and Pyan to 97 m in the flood plain of Alatyr. The enclosed spaces are a secondary morainic plain, which is replaced by a water-glacial plain on the lowland left bank of Alatyr. The valley of the river. Alatyr is characterized by sandy terraces and dunes alternating with low marshes.

The river Alatyr, in the valley of which the most part of the park is located, is one of the major tributaries of the Sura, the width of the river varies from 20 to 40 m, the depth reaches 2.5 m. Small rivers in the park area are Yazovka, Koldoba, Kashlya, Ashnya. In the park there are more than 30 springs, there are marshes, floodplain lakes. The largest reservoirs are lakes - nature monuments Dubovoy-1 and Dubovoy-2 with depths up to 5 m.

The structure of natural vegetation is dominated by pine forests and mixed forests: pine forests, green shoots, pine forests, pine trees, dolomoshniki, grassy grasses with lily of the valley, pine forests complex with linden and spruce. In the shrub layer there is a Russian broom, juniper common; in the grass cover - cranberries, blueberries, lily of the valley, hairy larvae, sedge horsetail, veronica fleecy, tonkonoge bluish and other species. There are extensive massifs of oak forests of lime-motley grass with a scented submarine and sedge hairy in the grass cover and oak-lignum lipnids. Significant areas are occupied by aspen and birch forests. Among the marshes lowland prevails, but there are also small transitional and even sphagnum swamps with cranberries and other boreal elements.

On the territory of the park there is a rare species of aquatic flora - chilim, or a water nut, included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. In total, on the territory of the park, according to preliminary data, grows about 1,000 species of vascular plants, a variety of mosses, lichens, mushrooms. Among them, more than 40 species of vascular plants listed in the list of rare and endangered in the Republic of Mordovia.

On the territory of the park nests about 130 species of birds, more than 30 species of mammals, 5 species of reptiles, 10 species of amphibians, more than 20 species of fish. Here live the elk, the wild boar, the forest marten, the ermine, the beaver. Relatively numerous wood grouse, black grouse, hazel grouse, gray partridge, nest gray crane, marked owl. During periods of migration in the floodplain of the river. Flocks of waterfowl and waterbirds are concentrated in Alatyr. Of reptiles are common, viviparous and quick lizards, there are common viper and spindle.

The ichthyofauna of rivers and reservoirs located on the territory of the national park is typical of Mordovia: pike, common roach, dace, ide, chub, rudd, asp, tench, common minnow, bleak, burr, golden bilberries and silver, ordinary pinewood , common loach, common catfish, burbot, zander, perch, common ruff, rotan. In the river. Alatyr is found sterlet.


A special place among the protected areas of Mordovia is the natural monument - Lake Enerka, located in the valley of the river. Sura is 12 km south-west of the district center Bolshie Berezniki. This is the largest lake in Mordovia. Its area is 56.3 hectares. It extends from the south-south-west to the north-north-east by 4.1 km. The shoreline of the lake is slightly sinuous. The deepest part (up to 11.20 m) is distinguished by that part of the lake basin, where the remains of the terrace rise on the shore. In the cross-section, the basin has a trough-like shape. On the sides, near the shore, there is a sharp increase in the depth to 4 m. The bed of the basin is flat, with a gradual decrease in depth to the ends of the lake, where small shallows are formed with a depth of up to 2 m. In the northern part, the lake of Inerka is connected by channels with lakes Ishak, Bumba and Zhurka. To the south of Inerka is the Tatarka lake, which is sickle-shaped along the remnant terraces.

The valley of Sura in the area of ​​Lake Inerka has a trapezoidal shape. On the right bank, there are remnants-watersheds with absolute elevations up to 265 m. They are composed of carbonate, siliceous-carbonate rocks of the Paleogene and Upper Cretaceous ages, overlapped by thin deluvial formations. On steep slopes, deposits of chalk, opoch and marls often reach the surface of the day. The slopes are covered with broad-leaved forests.

On the left bank of the Sura, where Inerka is located, slightly wavy surfaces of a terrace above the floodplain are stretched with absolute elevations of 113-125 m, composed of ancient alluvial sands. On the elevated plains there are lichen pine forests and pine forests, green hills with a rare shrub layer of rowan and Russian broom; in the grass cover - lily of the valley in May, goldenrod ordinary, hawk umbrella. In the richer places of growth, pine forests are complex with oak, linden, less often elm and maple. In the shrubbery of these forests abundantly there are rowan, hazel, scabby warty, honeysuckle forest, raspberry; in the grass - the common, the ranks of spring and pea, the chopstick is European, the borage is branchy.

Especially picturesque are the dune-shaped outcrops of intramundane terraced complexes with extensive, often drainless and dry basins of blowing (maximum absolute mark is 128.8 m), with pine forests of dry grass and lily-of-the-valley. They have wonderful views of the lake.

The Sura floodplain in the area of ​​Lake Inerka is slightly volcanic, composed of sands, loams with interbeds of sand, complicated by manes, old rivers and streams of small watercourses. In the floodplain broad-leaved forests, oak, linden, elm, aspen, well-developed undergrowth of Tatar maple, buckthorn, ashberry, dog rose, viburnum, and spindle are common. In lowered wet areas around marshes, lakes and streams alder forests of alder glue are encountered, thickets of bushes of bird cherry and willow woolly-ridden. In the floodplain, grass-meadow grasses dominate.

To the number of rare and endangered plants 33 types of vascular plants from 30 genera and 22 families, as well as 2 species of moss-like, 1 species of lichens, are included in the territory of the nature monument. A special place among them is occupied by the walnut, or chilim, and the Venus shoe present, included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation. The number of rare and endangered animals occurring in the vicinity of Lake Inerka includes 53 species of invertebrates and vertebrates from 7 classes and 19 orders, including the Russian desman.

Conservation areas


Territorial sounding of the Mordovian State Nature Reserve


Vegetation of the Mordovian State Nature Reserve


Underground and surface waters of the Smolny National Park


Natural landscapes of the Smolny National Park


Functional zones of the Smolny National Park