A characteristic feature of the mineral raw material base of Mordovia is the presence of mainly non-metallic raw materials: clays, sands, carbonate rocks, siliceous raw materials, which are used in the production of clay, silicate brick and blocks, expanded clay gravel, ceramic products, masonry and plaster mortars, building lime and limestone flour for liming of soils, cement, butane, rubble and mineral wool. In the cadastre of the deposits of the Republic of Mordovia, 159 deposits were registered, 96 are on the balance sheet, of which officially are involved 44.

The federal value on the territory of the republic has the cement raw materials of the Alekseevsky deposit of marl and chalk rocks and opok and Kochkushskoye deposit of clays - corrective additives in cement raw materials. Both deposits are the raw material base of OJSC Mordovcement. The total balance reserves of cement raw materials were as of January 1, 2011 by categories A + B + C1: of marl and chalk - 211,359 thousand tons; opok - 40 599 thousand tons; by category C2: marl and chalk - 64 267 thousand tons; opok - 21 299 thousand tons. Reserves of the Kochkuskoye deposit are classified as A + B + C1 41,069 thou. t. OJSC "Mordovcement" carried out works on geological study of the prospective area located between the disconnected sections of the Alekseevsky deposit of cement raw materials, with a view to expanding the raw base. The planned increase in reserves will be about 140,000 tons of marl and chalkstone and 80,000 tons of flasks. Provision of the enterprise with balance reserves, based on design capacity, is 33 years.

Sands make up a significant part of the geological section of Mordovia. The territorial balance accounted for as of January 1, 2011, 33 deposits of construction sand with total reserves in categories A + B + C1 53 555 thousand m3, C2 - 2 779 thousand m3, including 26 deposits of the distributed fund: category A + B + C1 - 33,617 thousand m3, C2 - 2,299 thousand m3; on the sites of the unallocated fund: by categories A + B + C1 - 19,939 thousand m3, C2 - 480 thousand m3.

The sands of the explored deposits are mainly fine and medium-grained, suitable as raw material for silica brick (Kichatovskoe), fine aggregate for concrete (Voevodskoe I, Voevodskoye II), for autoclaved concrete (Andreevskoye) and for plastering and mortar and mortar (Parapinsky, Usklyayskoye field). Coarse-grained sands are explored in Ruzaevsky, Kochkurovsky, Kovylkinsky and Zubovo-Polyansk districts, but to obtain high-quality sand it is necessary to enrich it (removal of clay particles). Significant distribution in the territory of Mordovia has silicate sand, the largest deposits of which are known in the valleys of the rivers Sura, Moksha and Alatyr. The production of silicate products is organized in Kovylkino region (OJSC Kovylkinsky silicate brick plant).

Clays in Mordovia make up the bulk of minerals. The largest deposits of this raw material for obtaining high-quality brick are available in Romodanovsky, Ruzaevsky, Kadoshkinsky and Kochkurovsky districts. Clays for the production of high-quality expanded clay are concentrated in Ruzaevsky, Lyambirsky, Romodanovsky and Ichalkovsky districts. As of January 1, 2011, the state balance accounted for 46 deposits with total stocks of brick raw materials by categories A + B + C1 46 437 thousand m3, C2 - 9 067 thousand m3 and off-balance reserves 825 thousand m3. The total reserves for the fields of the distributed fund are by categories A + B + C1 9 062 thousand m3, C2 - 2,266 thousand m3.

The territorial balance accounted for 8 deposits of claydite raw materials with total reserves in categories A + B + C1 16 153 thousand m3, C2 - 12548 thousand m3. 2 deposits with total reserves in categories A + B + C1 7304 thousand m3, C2 - 7 791 thousand m3 are being developed.

Consolidated balance of reserves accounted for one deposit of refractory clay - Shishkeevskoe (western section). As of January 1, 2011, the total balance reserves of the refractory clays of the Shishkeevskoye deposit were A + B + C1 639 thousand tons. The useful stratum is confined to the deposits of the Upper Albian substage of the Lower Cretaceous and is represented by clays. The plasticity of the clay is mostly high- and mid-plastic. Refractory clay 1 480-16 300 ° С. The deposit belongs to the unallocated subsoil fund. Mining technical conditions are favorable for open-pit mining. The raw materials of the deposit are approved for the production of slabs ceramic facade tiles, ceramic tiles for internal wall lining. The suitability of refractory clays for the production of facial bricks has been noted. Stripping overburden of Shishkeevsky (western section) deposits are accounted for by the balance of brick and tile raw materials.

Diatomites. The territorial balance of reserves takes into account two diatomite deposits - Atemarskoe and Anuchinskoye with total reserves of 21 106 thousand m3. The Atemar deposit is located 2 km east of the village. Atamar. It is known since 1916. Exploratory work was carried out in 1935 and 1956-1957. Diatomites were studied as a raw material base for the production of diatom brick and gravel (thermolite). The productive stratum is confined to the sediments of the Syzran suite of the Paleocene and is represented by diatomite, which lies in the form of a lens. Diatomaceous rocks are underlain and overlapped by flasks. Diatomites belong to the group of low-dispersed raw materials. The contamination by coarse-grained inclusions is generally low, from 0 to 0.92%. Inclusions in size are small and medium, represented by quartz. The diatomite of the deposit is suitable for the production of thermolithic gravel by the method of plastic molding, provided that the plasticizing additive - clay rocks is introduced into the charge.

Carbonate rocks for liming of acidic soils. As of January 1, 2008, two deposits with total reserves of categories A + B + C1 1,581 thousand tons were taken into account by the consolidated balance of carbonate reserves for liming of acid soils. The rest of the approved total balance reserves of the Novo-Shalovskoye deposit by categories A + B + С1 is 433 thousand tons. Chalk in natural form is suitable for liming of acidic soils and corresponds to TU 10 RF 1080-92.

A piece of chalk. The territorial balance of reserves in the Republic of Mordovia includes two chalk deposits - Atemarskoe and Atiashevskoye with total reserves as of January 1, 2010 by categories A + B + C1, 11,166 thousand tonnes.

Building stone. As of January 1, 2010, the territorial balance of the Republic's reserves accounted for three deposits of building stone: Budaevskoe and Urkat deposits of carbonate rocks, Kabaevskoye sandstone deposit. The total aggregate reserves are: by categories A + B + C1 - 17 522 thousand m3, C2 - 518 thousand m3, off-balance reserves - 1 602 thousand m3.

Mineral paints. On the territory of the republic there are 2 deposits of mineral paints - Anaevskoye and Chukalskoye with total reserves of raw materials in categories B + C1 of 85 thousand tons. Deposits were explored in 1936, stocks in TKZ were not approved. Chukalskoye deposit, previously developed, canned in 1971.

Zeolite-bearing rocks. The total predicted resources of zeolites in the territory of Mordovia, proposed for approval at the beginning of 2010, are 25.47 million m3. The main resources of raw materials are concentrated in the eastern regions of the republic in the deposits of the Turonsanton stage. According to the content of clinoptilolite, these deposits exceed the Santonian deposits of Tatarstan. According to the results of the prospecting works, four most promising areas are identified: the Dubenka deposit, the manifestations - Kochkurovo, Maskazerovskie Vyselki, Engalychevo. The balance reserves of the Dubenka deposit proposed for registration are estimated at category C2 and amount to 17.78 million m3. The existing fund of forecasted resources is a sufficient base for expanding exploration and development of balance reserves, but due to the lack of marketing potential investors are practically unfamiliar with the prospects of using Mordovia zeolites.

Healing mud. In 1984 in the area of. The old Shaygovo on an area of ​​19.7 hectares within the peat deposit of Kadymzhay on the terrace above the floodplain of the river. Sivini explored a mud reservoir with balance reserves for category A 170 thousand m3, off-balance reserves - 4 thousand m3. The deposit is operated by the sanatorium of Sanatorium Saransky OJSC.

Peat. The explored peat resources are located in 497 peat deposits with a total area of ​​18 376.1 hectares, within the boundaries of the industrial depth of the peat deposit - 9,173.1 hectares with a total resource of 28,615.5 thousand tons. Peat deposits that have standard reserves (C1 and C2) are classified as promising and amount to 3,765 thousand tonnes. The peat reserves with categories P1 and P2 are estimated at 5,268 thousand tonnes in 243 fields. According to the type of deposit, peat deposits of low-lying type prevail. The main peat reserves are concentrated on deposits of 11 to 100 hectares (about 45% of reserves), 16 peat deposits ranging from 101 to 1,000 ha have 40% of the total reserves. Only two peat deposits have an area of ​​more than 500 hectares: the Tengushevsky Massif in the Tengushevsky District is 584 hectares and Novo-Zubarevskoye in the Krasnoslobodsky District 565 hectares. Of particular interest are peat deposits with an increased content of calcium oxide (CaO> 5%), phosphorus oxide (P2O5> 0.5%) and total sulfur (S> 1%). The high content of calcium in peat makes it possible to use it in its pure form as a calcareous fertilizer. Peat raw materials can be used as therapeutic muds.

The need for peat as an excellent organic raw material, which has a wide range of biochemical properties, will constantly increase. In addition to the traditional use as a fertilizer for additional studies of the chemical and other properties of specific types of peat raw materials, it is possible to significantly expand the scope of its use.

Productive horizons, patterns of location and prospects for discovering mineral deposits

Deposits and manifestations of minerals on the territory of the republic are associated with near-surface occurrence and outcrops of Carboniferous, Cretaceous, Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary systems. Among them, the following productive horizons are conventionally distinguished: Gzhel, Albian, Santonian, Syzran, Miocene-Pliocene and Pleistocene-Holocene on the building stone, sand and gravel raw materials and building sands.

The Gzhel productive horizon of the Upper Carboniferous is developed in the northwestern and northern regions of Mordovia, on the territory of which sediments of limestone, dolomite and dolomitized limestone form along the Satis, Urkat, and Insar Rivers. Budaevskoye, Urkatskoe, Purdoshanskoe and other deposits of building stone are confined to them, in the area of ​​which within the right slope of the valley of the river. Mokshi highlighted Elkovskaya perspective area of ​​the building stone (limestone and dolomite). Yusupovskaya perspective area of ​​the building stone is allocated on the left slope of the valley of the river. Insar in the vicinity of the villages of Pushkino and Yusupovka.

The Albian productive horizon is part of the sandy-clay accumulations of the Lower Cretaceous. In the southern regions of Mordovia, albic sands are differentiated, forming a useful stratum of Voevodsky I, Voevodsky II, Usklyaysk deposits and Aleksinsky, Argamakovskii, Usklyaysk manifestations.

The Santonian productive horizon is part of the Upper Cretaceous, mainly carbonate, complex. Santonian deposits are one of the most productive horizons for construction and road materials. Deposits of santons are developed in the basin of the river. Insar, in the interfluves of Insara and Sura, Issa and Moksha. In the basin of the left bank of Issa and the upper reaches of the Insara, they are represented by a layer of light yellow flasks, partly siliceous, alternating with opaque sandstones, above which are quartz sands also with interlayers of oporniform sandstones. In the basin of the river. Insar Santonian deposits are represented by marls with interlayers of clays and flasks containing sand and sandstones with nodules of phosphorites at the base. Arbuzovsky and Svistovsky manifestations of sandstones are associated with them. Most of the deposits of Santonian poplars and sandstones are concentrated on the watershed of Sura and Insar.

The Syzran productive horizon of the Lower Paleogene is widely represented in the southern and southeastern regions of the republic. In the lower part of the incisions, the flasks with rare diatomite and trefoil lenses predominate, above which lie a stratum composed of interbedded glauconite-quartz sands and sandstones. This horizon is confined to the Nerleiskoye and Kabaevskoye deposits of sandstones and a number of their manifestations in the eastern regions; Alma, Andreevskoye, 2nd Andreevskoye deposits, Durkinskoye I, Durkinskoye II displays of sand, etc. There are a number of deposits and manifestations of siliceous flasks that are used in some regions of the republic as a road surface.

In the west of the republic, small areas of undivided Paleogene-Neogene (Oligocene-Miocene) formations are represented, which are represented by the thickness of quartz sands with a gravel-pebble layer at the base. The Miocene-Pliocene productive horizon occupies relatively small areas in the southern regions of the republic. It is composed of sands quartz, coarse-grained, clayey and clay fat, non-calcareous with interlayers of aleurite-sandy material. To this horizon is confined Kolomasovskoe manifestation of building sands.

The Pleistocene-Holocene productive horizon is represented by formations of various genesis, of which the sediments of the glacial complex-morainic, fluvioglacial, lacustrine-alluvial and alluvial, are of the greatest importance for the deposits of mineral-building raw materials (sandy-gravel materials and building sands). Moral formations are developed in the western regions of Mordovia. They are composed of loam, usually heavy, coarsely sandy, with nests and lenses of grained sand with gravel, pebbles and boulders. Fluvioglacial and lacustrine-alluvial formations are represented by heterogeneous, mostly fine-grained, sands with thin interlayers of loamy rocks. To the fluvioglacial and lacustrine-alluvial deposits, the Atemar, Ivanovo, Starofedorovskoye deposits, Vyazerskoe, Pavlovskoye and other manifestations of building sands are confined.

The alluvial deposits in the lower part are composed of coarse-grained sands in places with an admixture of gravel-pebble material, changing upwards along the section with sandy sands, sandy loam and loam. The largest in Mordovia deposits of construction sand are confined to alluvial deposits: Kochelayevskoe, Kichatovskoe, Parapinskoye, Shingarinskoye. Among the sediments of the Pleistocene-Holocene productive horizon of different genesis (fluvioglacial, alluvial-fluvioglacial, alluvial, deluvial-solifluction) on the floodplains, along the watershed slopes and valleys of the rivers Sura, Alatyr, Insara, Moksha and their tributaries, Mokshinskaya I, Mokshinskaya II, Mokshinskaya III , Alatyrskaya, Yavaska, Vadskaya, Issina, Surskaya perspective areas of construction sand and Mokshinskaya - sand and gravel mixture.

The lake-marsh and marsh sediments are represented by peat, silty clay, loam. To the deposits of this genesis, a useful stratum of Anaevsky and Chukalskoe deposits of mineral paints is confined.

Mineral deposits